Researchers from cold spring Harbor (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) have found the reason why the PTEN gene, which produces the namesake protein-antioncogene, may be some patients who are less active. Typically, PTEN prevents the uncontrolled growth of the tumor. Mutations in this gene are observed in various types of cancer, e.g., lung or prostate. The research said that the destabilization of PTEN may occur due to the lack of IPO11 protein (Importin-11), which delivers the protein PTEN in the cell nucleus, protecting it from destruction.
Some cytoplasmic proteins NEDD4-1, NDFIP1 and UBE2E1 – can come together and put on PTEN protein tag ubiquitin molecule. Several of these labels make protein-a target visible to a cellular system, the destruction of proteins. IPO11 “accompanies” to the core of not only PTEN but also UBE2E1, thus violating the mechanism of labels.
Mouse, the body which was a low level IPO11, also had a lower concentration of the protein PTEN. These animals developed adenocarcinoma of the lung and neoplasia of the prostate. Such mutations in the gene PTEN was observed in cancer patients people, in addition, in samples of malignant lung tumors, the PTEN protein concentration was small. The researchers suggested that an insufficient number IPO11 occurs in approximately one third of patients with low PTEN protein concentration.
For prostate cancer the lack of IPO11 led to recurrence of the disease and the occurrence of metastasis in patients with prostate which was removed because of a tumor. One of the scientists, Lloyd Trotman (Trotman Lloyd), said that Importin-11 – the “Achilles heel” of the system maintain correct protein level of PTEN in the body.
Another study on cancer, conducted among 18 thousand patients with tumors of the colon. It turned out that those who are addicted to Smoking and die sooner than those who have this bad habit was not. Five-year survival of smokers was 14% less. Among those patients who had had a solely surgical treatment, the percentage was higher – smokers, patients died more frequently of cancer than non-smokers, approximately 1.21 times. The authors stressed that in order to increase the survival rate among such patients, it is necessary to convince the supporters of Smoking to give up the pernicious habit.
Cancer is not a death sentence, and many patients continue active lives. In France there was a scandal in which one of the participants became well-known store – Galeries Lafayette (Galeries Lafayette). The woman went to a Department store in the headdress, and the guard began to insist that she took off her hat. The visitor explained that she wears a head covering, as hair lost during cancer treatment, but “guard” was adamant. Frustrated shoppers had to leave the store, and her daughter made an entry in Facebook that rapidly became viral. She also said that the behavior of the guard shameful and inhuman. Representatives of the Galeries Lafayette contacted the family and promised to conduct a conversation with the guard. According to them, he overdid it, in accordance with the requirements of the law under which the person should be well distinguishable.