The idea of the first awards of Soviet Russia appeared in the summer of 1918. In the country Civil war began, the military command felt it necessary to note the distinguished soldiers of the red Army.
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Awards the same as those in the Russian Federation was not. In accordance with the Decree “On the equation of all employees in rights from December 15, 1917, they abolished all orders and other insignia of the Russian Empire. Instead, as rewards used gifts, personalized watches, personal weapons and even known for the immortal film “Officers” “the revolutionary combat trousers”.
The initiator of the appearance of the first Soviet award was Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky – one of the leaders of the October armed uprising in Petrograd and stormed the Winter Palace. Occupying the post of member of the Collegium of the people’s Commissariat for military and naval Affairs of the RSFSR, Podvoisky first created the main symbol of the red Army – the red star, and then put forward a proposal to award the distinguished parts of the “Honorary revolutionary Red Banner”. This award was approved on August 3, 1918, and ten days later Podvoisky addressed to the Chairman of the Central Executive Committee Yakov Sverdlov with the proposal to establish personal rewards.
A special Commission has developed two versions of the award – “Red Flag” and “Red Carnation”. At the meeting of the VTSIK on 14 September, two options are selected “Red Flag”, which is September 16 was finally approved together with the status of the order.
Under the first Statute, the order was given to “all citizens of the Russian Federation, who displayed particular courage and bravery in direct combat activities.” Later modified the Statute says that the order is awarded for “for outstanding bravery, dedication and courage shown during the defence of the socialist Fatherland”. Award the award could not only of individuals, but also military units, military ships, government and public organizations.
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Thumbnail order created two artists, father and son Denisovy – Vasily and Vladimir. Of the six options, the Commission chose one as the most reflecting the essence awards. It was depicted: a detailed Red Flag, five-pointed Red Star, ploughshares, sickle, bayonet, crossed hammer and sickle, oak leaves wreath. A Red flag was the slogan “Proletarians of all countries, unite!”.
The first order bearer – Blucher, Makhno and other “enemies of the people”
Perhaps no Soviet award has so many mysteries and secrets, as the order of the red banner. There is serious confusion about who and when received the first order. This is due to the fact that many awarded subsequently were in a difficult relationship with the Soviet authorities, and their names are carefully deleted.
In the first premium sheet of the Central Executive Committee of September 28, 1918, contained three names. Order number 1 received the future Marshal of the Soviet Union and “enemy of the people” Vasily Blucher, who distinguished himself with his troops in the RAID in the Urals. Award number two got Basil Panyushkin, the head of security of the Smolny, and later the commander of the 1st Socialist worker-peasant detachment of the Central Executive Committee, distinguished themselves in the capture of Kazan. Panyushkin in 1937, was also arrested by the Cheka, he got ten years in the camps, but the execution, unlike Blucher, escaped.
With the third order the situation is much more complex. According to the documents, it was awarded “comrade Kuzmich”. Kuzmich – party group commander of the 2nd Cavalry Philip Mironov. A brilliant cavalry officer, he was distinguished by a quick temper, which led to conflicts with the leadership of the country.
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Perpetrated by them in 1919, the revolt ended in a death sentence, but then Mironov was pardoned and again put at the head of the army. However, in 1921 disagreements with the command again led him to prison, where he died, according to the official version, the accident.
The confusion is caused by the fact that the first order was of poor quality and was sent back for rework. In the end, the same Blucher received the award in may 1919, and at number 114.
Another candidate for the order at number 3 — the head of the 6th Ukrainian division of the red Army ataman Nikifor Grigoriev. Former petlyurovets moved to the side of the Bolsheviks and distinguished himself in the battle, for which he was awarded. Soon, however, Grigorev mutinied, and the award ceremony was quick to forget. To defeat the rebel requested by another commander. He coped with the task and was also awarded the order of red banner, just under the number 4.
It was a brilliant commander Nestor Makhno. Unlike Grigoriev, order of the red banner of Makhno really presented, as evidenced by the picture, which the anarchist is depicted with the order.
Makhno, in turn, also fought with the Bolsheviks, and then they tried to forget about the awarding of the chieftain. Even though the order and stayed with relatives Makhno.
Another candidate for the order of the red banner number 3 is Joseph Stalin, who was noted for his defense of Tsaritsyn. While in the real lists of the recipients of Stalin is number 400, however, there is a version that the order of number 3 gave it to him.
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Record Of Ivan Kozhedub
When we talk about the first awarding of the order of the red banner, it should be remembered that we are talking about the award of the RSFSR. The same order of the USSR was approved in August 1924, after a year and a half after the establishment of the Soviet Union.
Yes, this moment, in addition to the RSFSR, there were of the order of the red banner of Azerbaijan (1920), Georgia, Armenia and the Republic of Khorezm (1921).
In December of 1920, the order of the red banner has a brother in the order of red banner of Labor. They were noted for large labor merits before the Soviet state and society in production, science, culture, literature, art, education, healthcare, government, public and other spheres of labour activities”.
There is a misconception that existed in the Soviet Union and the order of the Combat red banner of Labor. This is misleading – the term “combat” officially to the order of the red banner was not used. It originated exclusively in conversation, and in fact, in the list of Soviet awards included the order of the red banner and the order of the red banner of Labor.
Order of the red banner remained the highest Soviet award before the approval in 1930 the order of Lenin. And since a long time the medal was the only award already in 1920 started the re-awarding. For the exploits in the Civil war twice received the order of 285 people, as well as three 31 and four – 4. Among the four knights were first awarded the order of red banner – Vasily Blucher. Before he was declared an enemy of the people, the captain managed to get the fifth award.
The famous Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny, which did not affect the repression, was a knight of the six orders of the red banner.
Interestingly, the order of the red banner was the only award on the flap which indicated that at some time awarded. The fourth order correspond to the number “4” on the front side, the fifth – “5” and so on.
Only about 15 persons are holders of record of the number of orders of the red banner – seven. Among them the famous Soviet flying ACE, three times Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Kozhedub.
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Order of the red banner was held in great respect, while in 1944, avoid its devaluation. For not very clear reasons, the decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet it was decided to present the order of the red banner for meritorious service in the army for 20 years. Those who served 30, was supposed to the second order of the red banner. Those who have served 25 years, received the order of Lenin.
In 1958 the order of the red banner regained the status of military awards, abolishing rewarding them for years of service. In fact, the older order became a military award of the USSR, since the award of the order “Victory” standing on higher rank, is practically not carried out.
Order of the red banner in the last decades of its existence, was awarded the military who fought in the “hot spot” of the world – Korea, Vietnam, Angola, Afghanistan.
Just from 1924 to 1991 the order of the red banner was awarded to 580 thousand times 300 thousand awards were held for years of service).
In the Perestroika period to the history of the order back in unexpected ways – when it started a new wave of rehabilitation of persons repressed during the “Great terror”, was made a special batch of orders of the red banner sample the first years of Soviet power. These orders were given to the relatives of those rehabilitated, who at the time was awarded this award, and then deprived of it by now canceled the sentence.
Another interesting story associated with the myth that the order of the red banner was awarded to Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Indeed, until 1943 at the suit of the leader of the world proletariat flaunted this award. However, this order belonged to the business Manager of people’s Commissars Nikolai Gorbunov, who attached his suit Lenin award during the farewell ceremony in the Hall of columns. Actually Lenin during his lifetime was awarded the order of Labor of the Khorezm people’s Soviet Republic, and it was his for many years could see the visitors of the Museum of Lenin in Moscow.
The last decree awarding order of the red banner was signed by Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev 24 December 1991. Knight of the order, closed the history of this award, became the Colonel of a health service Vladimir Remizov.
Together with the Country of Advice has gone down in history and its first award.