In 1797, Easter was early — her first day fell on April 5. The main holiday of the Orthodox Christians was celebrated throughout the Russian Empire more or less the same. Significant changes were made only in the order of service of the assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin — in the day there was the coronation of Paul I.
He can be considered one of the unluckiest of the Russian tsars. It is not even the term, although it was small — 4 years, 4 months, 4 days and 4 hours. He had bad luck even in the afterlife. The established opinion about it briefly and impartially. The Emperor-tyrant, plagued by petty chicanery of his subjects, would bow before the king of Prussia Friedrich and tried to dress up the Russia-mother in German uniform.
Bad good Peter. What was the first Russian Emperor?
Law and drawbar
Meanwhile, overlooked a very curious statistical fact. During the reign of Paul issued 2179 legislative acts. On average, out of 42 per month. Catherine II published on 12 laws per month. Peter I — 8. It commands respect, even if we take only quantitative indicators. About as Pavlovian orders tells another fact. None of them was cancelled the next Emperor. Most of them generally lived until 1917. But little survived to the present day.
In fact, even his coronation Paul was accompanied by the announcement of the law, which forbade serfs to work for the master on Sunday and holidays. Especially beautiful was the ending: “SIM required all landlords to settle for a three-day work of peasants in a week.” Before the Lord could drive the peasants for their work, as and when you want.
About this law, as a rule, say that he did not become a breakthrough that poorly executed that ended almost in failure. However, there are statistics of peasant unrest. In this case, numbers speak louder than words. In 1796 count 278 performances serfs. In 1797, less — 177 outbreaks of discontent. 1798 — 12. 1799 — 10. And finally, 1801 — only 7 cases of peasant unrest.
Thanks Pavlovsky law, the probability of a major peasant revolt grew 40 times. For a country whose population is 95% of peasants is a lot.
Popular uprisings in the Russian Empire in XVII–early XX century. Infographics
The people’s king
German playwright and the Prussian envoy at the Russian court, August Kotzebue was suspected of freethinking and banished acousto Paul in the Urals city of Kurgan. Theoretically, his “Notes about the Emperor Paul” should be filled with fierce anger. However, here’s what we see there: “the People were happy. No one is oppressed. Nobles did not dare to treat him with the usual arrogance. They knew that whenever it was possible to write directly to the Emperor and that the Emperor was reading a letter. Of the 36 million people at least 33 million had reason to bless the Emperor.”
“Gusty manifestations of madness.” Like Paul I eradicated freethinking
What kind of love? The answer kind of gives the other a foreigner, a Frenchman in the Russian service, Alexander Langeron: “rage of the Emperor was hit only on officers and generals. The soldiers, well clothed and fed, by contrast, is showered with gifts”.
The common people in General, of course, gifts are not showered. Although it depends. For example, forgiveness of tax arrears in 7,5 million roubles declared by Paul is a gift or not? But the amount — about a tenth the annual budget of the Empire.
Of course, not everything can be measured in money. How to evaluate next move of the Emperor? “Paul was first sworn in himself on the loyalty of the peasants than equate them to other classes.” That is, by and large, acknowledged the serfs for the people. Probably the best assessment here is the testimony of a contemporary: “the Lower classes with so much enthusiasm greeted the Emperor, he began to explain the coldness from the nobility of moral depravity and revolutionary tendencies”.
Paul I require rehabilitation
The fight against extremism
1798 Jan 20th. Prohibited all wearing tuxedos and all kind of jackets and shoes with ribbons. It is forbidden to use the round hats of felt, cattanach or other matter.
1799 February 18th. Forbidden to dance the waltz.
1800, April 18th. It is prohibited to import into Russia of foreign books and music.
Very often, the next number after the mention of these decrees Paul is a snide grin. They say that this is overkill, restriction of freedom and all obscurantism. That, round hats or foreign books state collapse?
It is appropriate to answer a question with a question: “Tell me, now in all stores Russia can freely buy “Mein Kampf”, the uniform of the SS or a bandage with a swastika?”
From rags to emperors. What ended the French the independence of the XVIII century?
Juggling is not here. Coats, vests, belts on shoes — all French revolutionary fashion. And the fact that the French did during their revolution with the Royal family and nobility, inspired Paul almost more horror and disgust than the us “exploits” of Hitler. So the order of the Emperor “to prohibit and to enforce the law can be interpreted as one of the first laws against the proliferation of symbols of extremist materials in the world.
By the way, the ban on the importation of foreign books and music have had far-reaching consequences. Suddenly a significant portion of the nobility began to get involved in the domestic literature. And even quietly abandon the everyday use of the French language, gradually moving to the Russian. Especially in dealing with children.
Violence in the Mikhailovsky castle. Chronology of the assassination of Paul I
Take his overcoat, and went home
Soldier, soldier, what are you asleep?
— On overcoats.
— And in their heads too?
— And in feet?
— And hid it?
— So how many do you have?
The dialogue of the Russian soldier and the devil from folk tales directly refers to the days of Paul. Specifically — one of the 14 thousand orders for the army. What Paul gave to the Russian soldier overcoat. Versatile clothing that’s been through all the wars of two hundred years, including two world and with a few changes came almost to the present day.
For Russia, the stepmother. Famous foreigners serving in the Russian army
By the way, Pavlovskaya overcoat really answered fabulous requirements — it dispensed 4 feet 4 inches of cloth that is approximately 3 meters. At known skill it is indeed possible to spend the night, and in the form of Skadi it could protect you from saber shock and even a bullet.
And how “awkward, cramped, cold form of the Prussian model, which maimed Russian soldiers”? Probably nothing. Because there are many orders of Paul to the template categorically do not fit. For example, for the winter time, he introduced a guard sheepskin coat and valenki — traditional Russian garments. And in the guardhouse must be a number “felt boots” that each new change has worn dry and warm. This rule, as it was established by Paul, and remained in all modern statutes.
Cherished dream of every Russian Emperor, worthy of comparison with Peter the Great. But anyway, it happens all the time. Another thing as compared. For example, Alexander II called only a pale shadow of Peter.
Paul said otherwise. Fedor Rostopchin in conversation with the daughter of the late Emperor, ECatherine Pavlovna, said: “your Father for him was equal to Peter, if he had not died so early.