The twentieth of October 1955, he published a book “the return of the king”, which became the final part of the trilogy “the Lord of the rings”. One of the most popular novels-epics of the twentieth century hardly needs any introduction. The Saga of the one Ring, written by John Tolkien, has captured the minds of millions of readers and then viewers worldwide. Earlier Aify told the story of the origin of the world of middle-earth; it was the turn of the interesting facts related to the book.
The Lord of the minds: 60 years of the Saga of the one Ring
Not a trilogy
“The Lord of the rings” Tolkien was conceived not as a trilogy, but as a whole work. But the publisher Allen & Unwin was afraid that the book will be poorly received by the public: no one wrote “adult” songs about mythical creatures, except that is inherent in childhood tales. The fantasy genre did not exist. In case of failure of the first part seal the rest can be stopped, reducing the losses.
The novel is divided into six parts; the editor then joined them in pairs, giving their own names: “the fellowship of the ring” “Two towers” and “return of the king”; the edition consisted of six volumes. Note that Tolkien didn’t like this idea in General, and the title of a recent book in particular. He proposed to entitle it “the War of the ring”, but to Allen & Unwin for some reason rejected the name. Disputes and dispute lasted almost a year: a book published 20 Oct 1955, and the previous part — “the Two towers” — November 11, 1954.
“The hobbit: the Battle of the five armies”. Than the movie different from the book
The main passion of Tolkien was a linguistics; in childhood he developed a “secret” language for communication with friends that others couldn’t overhear. Interest in linguistic design remained with him until the end of life: it is believed that Tolkien created more than twenty languages and dialects varying degrees of development, with a unique grammar and vocabulary building. Even the language — “Eglises”. In addition, he was a talented calligrapher: some languages have in addition received their own writing.
Peter Jackson: “Tolkien is not a novel fantasy. This is legend”
Easycommerce was the author of “the Lord of the rings” source of inspiration: he later admitted that the world of middle earth was invented as a kind of “testing ground” for the developed languages. “For me, first comes the word, and then the story associated with it,” said Tolkien. In one letter he noted that he would gladly write a whole novel “in Elvish”; by the way, a personal diary Tolkien also conducted in their own language.
The most developed of the dialects of the universe of middle-earth are the elven “Sindarin” and “Quenya”. However, viewers of the trilogy, Peter Jackson more familiar “black dialect”, which was written by the famous poetic spell of the one Ring: “One ring to rule over them…”
Epic own hands
Tolkien did not consider “the Lord of the rings” story and do a book for easy reading. He created the epic. Tolkien from childhood, he was worried that the Anglo-Saxons do not exist myths that are comparable with the medieval sagas of Northern Europe, including “Beowulf” or “the Saga of Hervar”. The decision on their own to fill this cultural gap formed him when he was the reserve from the front of the First world war due to typhus. Then Tolkien was 24 years old, the novel he finished in 56 years.
What previously unknown novel by Tolkien?
It is known that “large seen from a distance”: newspaper reviewers agreed that “the Lord of the rings” is suitable for children but hardly for adults. One of the most influential literary theorists and critics of the twentieth century Edmund Wilson reproached the author in a bad study of the characters of the main characters and the General conservatism inherent in the novel. And colleagues at Oxford University, even blamed Tolkien that he wasted my time for literary works, instead of how to engage in teaching. Delighted at first was only solubili Professor of literature mug “Inkling”; Clive Lewis (the future author of the “Chronicles of Narnia”) immediately predicted that the book will outlive the author.
John Tolkien. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org
The first major recognition came to Tolkien in the 60-ies of the… from American hippies. Published in the United States, the novel suddenly became a best-seller among youth. This is all the more surprising when you consider that Tolkien’s whole life was purely an apologist for conservative values and “the Lord of the rings” — a work with deep Christian roots. Anyway, hippies proclaimed Tolkien his idol. An elderly English Professor that brought a lot of inconvenience; we even had to change my phone number because the fans annoyed him with endless calls.
In 1970, the word “hobbit” was included in the Oxford dictionary of the English language. For a passionate linguist, JRR Tolkien it was the highest award. In 1972, the Professor gets the title of Commander of the British Empire from the hands of the Queen.
But the orcs who?
The famous speech of U.S. President Ronald Reaganin which he declared the USSR the “evil Empire” was perceived by contemporaries as a reference to the novel. That is, the Soviet Union is Mordor, the dark land, where rule the main antagonist of the book Sauron. Mordor rises in the West, who are positive characters. Tolkien himself objected to this reading of the novel, as explicitly written in the Preface to one of the editions of Lord of the rings.
What is Mordor?
The inscription on the tombstone
On the tombstone of Tolkien and his wife are the names “Beren” and “Luthien” — the names of the characters of “the Book of lost tales” or “the Silmarillion”, of the novel, which appeared much earlier Lord of the rings, but was published much later. This is a huge and furious work, written in an archaic language that at first was rejected by all publishers, although it is the Foundation of the world of middle-earth, the kind of myths and legends. Thus, the novel “Lord of the rings” is like a “tale within a tale”, a little part of history.