Now, when actively discussed the law on the Russian nation, when again raised the question — who and how in this nation can be a part of that historical precedents can play a significant role. In particular, the decree of Catherine the great. He seems to be a categorical ban.
However, his citations can continue. And then it turns out that the view of the situation was fundamentally different: “Entry to stop until all entered work will not take their own food will not have”.
We have selected a few examples of the most significant waves of European migrations to Russia. Each of them made a serious contribution in the formation of Russian culture, science, military Affairs and just brought, according to the same Catherine, “to the multiplication of the population and prosperity of our Empire.”
Greek, Crimean and petty-bourgeois. 12 foreign settlements of old Moscow
Italians. XV-XVI centuries.
“Strangers are freely permitted to enter the country, adopt them and showered favors. Italians first of all respect and love,” wrote a traveler Francesco da collo in 1518 the truth. Italy in those days — the most developed and the most cultured country in Europe. For Italian professionals in the truest sense fighting. Masters outbid, enticed, promised mountains of gold. And they were very picky — anyhow where did not go. So Moscow Russia, where in the XV century, came a flood of Italians, in this battle for European professionals, is an obvious leader. At least for the reason that we were masters of the League with the names of Aristotle Fioravanti and Pietro Solari can be found in the Italian textbooks, where they are on a par with Leonardo da Vinci. The result of their activities is known to everyone — it is the Moscow Kremlin.
The castle of Castelvecchio in Verona. Photo: www.globallookpress.com
The Moscow Kremlin. Photo: www.globallookpress.com
Their big names overshadow in our minds the other Italians. However, they merit no less. So, in the middle of the XIV century a caster, “master Boris Roman”, cast the bell for the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, and another five for the Moscow temples. In the XV century the list of professionals is expanding repeatedly. “Goldsmiths” (jeweler), Christopher, “wall master” (engineer) Ruffo, “organnoi igrets” (musician) , Giovanni, “blacksmithing Dodger” Peacock… by the Way, last, Paolo de Bosso, turned Russian into a Peacock of Deboise, cast the first Tsar cannon with a caliber 550 mm in 1488 the Other, Jacob Fryazin, “the main monetchik” Prince Ivan III, wrote with pride in his native Milan: “I work near the White Emperor, and therefore have the opportunity to go to sable furs.”
But even those who were modest official or even a servant, had in Russia a chance to become famous in the children and grandchildren. For example, “husband dago harmony regitry male Tutchev” hardly suggested that he is a descendant of Fedor Tiutchev will be the famous Russian poet and translator-interpreter Athanasius Chicherini — what his nickname will be the name of the revolutionary and Soviet diplomat Georgi Chicherin.
Not a city, but La Dolce Vita! Why Italians sought to Moscow
The English and the Scots. XVII.
In “lecture” the Prince of Vladimir Monomakh , you can find the mournful entry: “Georgieva mother Umrah.” This occurred in 1107, “Gurgi” — the son of Vladimir, Yuri Dolgoruky. And his “mother’s” Princess Gita of Wessex, wife of Monomakh and daughter killed in the battle of Hastings the English king, who fled to Denmark and then to Russia. It turns out that Moscow was founded by the son of an English refugee.
“Warlock” in the service of Russia. Truth and legend about Jacob Bruce
However, this wave of English and Scots who migrated to Russia, came in the seventeenth century, when England was a revolution and the people fled from its horrors almost on the edge of the earth. Who they were, speaks one of the Russian zemelapiai: “the Kingdom Aginskoe, people of merchants and scientists. Kingdom skocko (from Scot — Scot), merchant little, all military.” Truer words were never spoken. The British are often served in Russia for medical parts — even the personal doctor of the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was Samuel Collins. But the first in the history of our country — General Scotsman Alexander Leslie, received the title for the capture of Smolensk in 1654, by the Way, he became famous for the fact that she converted to Christianity and gave rise to the old Smolensk Leslie — str in Smolensk before the revolution was called “Lesnewski travel.” Let’s not forget the other Russian General, hero of 1812 war, Mikhail Barclay de Tolly from the clan Barclay. And, of course, Mikhail Lermontov, whose ancestor, a mercenary, and also Lieutenant George Lermont, was taken prisoner by the troops of Dmitry Pozharsky in 1613 and decided to stay in Russia.
However, among the Scots in Russian service were not only warriors. The name of the associate of Peter I James Bruce — engineer, mathematician, astronomer, and geologist — known to many. His fellow mechanic and architect Christopher Galloway, known less. But it was he who set the clock on the Spasskaya and tents on other Kremlin towers.
Around the world by metro. A magnificent dozen of the most English places in the capital
French. XVIII century.
During the great French revolution of 1789 had a real outcome — the country has left more than 150 thousand people. Fled anywhere. But it so happened that a distant, cold Russia ranked second in the number of French immigrants — more than 15 thousand. The first took the England — 25 thousand people. The reason is simple. States bordering on France were seriously concerned that the protection of emigrants will invoke the wrath of the young Republic.
Russia — huge, powerful and rich — indifferent to the threats of the revolutionaries, and the number of migrants. But the fate of the last was different. Russian memoirist Philip Vigel, by the way, a Swede by birth, said: “we did Not have for the French mid. They became or teachers, or court nobles. Soon in the most remote provinces with poor landowner began to have a Marquise.” As a whole, but was part of the French, whom fate and this passed. So, Armand Emmanuel de Richelieu, a descendant of the cardinal from the Three Musketeers, under the command of Suvorov volunteered to storm Ishmael, was adopted in the Russian army and remained in our history as a Builder and first mayor of Odessa.
Ring master. The first chief architect of Moscow was French
The Germans. XVII-XVIII centuries.
The Germans have always been our neighbours, but because their relocation happens more often than others. So, none of the other European Nations will not be able to boast that gave Russian Saint. But the Germans went two. Procopius of Ustiug, a native of Lubeck, in the thirteenth century, and Isidore of Rostov from Brandenburg in the XV century.
Factories, Church and palaces. A walk through German village
Both became famous as fools, and Isidore did come from Germany to Rostov on foot. Curiously, many years later, in 1821, on foot came to Russia a Napoleon Peltzer, the ancestor of the famous Russian actress Tatiana Peltzer. The dream of the Germans to conquer the world. The funny thing is that in the XVIII century, they did it almost all the European thrones were just the Germans. However, in Russia, born a German on the throne, there was only one, but Catherine the Great. Others come to us in various ways. For example, the ancestor of the Russian playwright Denis Fonvizin, Berndt Valdemar von Wissen, was taken prisoner, even under Ivan the terrible. But the German States were impoverished, and people of them were employed in the Russian service. Just in the XVIII century we had decided to complain about the “German oppression” in all areas.
However, the complaint can be reviewed. This can help these descendants of Russian Germans, as the poets Alexander Blok and Afanasy FET, sailors Ivan Kruzenshtern and Thaddeus Bellingshausen, musician Svyatoslav Richter and colleague of Sergei Korolev, rocketry pioneer Friedrich Zander…
Gothic Moscow. Where did the capital come from “barbarian” buildings?