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In 2015, more than 2 million people worldwide became infected with human immunodeficiency virus sexually transmitted, which is the main way of infection. Spanish researchers from the IDIBELL Institute evaluated the effectiveness of the new antiretroviral drug, dolutegravir. They found the speed with which the drug reduces viral load in spermatozoa, and compared this figure with the results of the actions of other drugs. The authors believe that this medicine reduces probability of sexual transmission of the virus more effective than most other drugs.
These drugs mainly help to reduce the viral load in the blood after 6-9 months of treatment, this rate decreases significantly. However, 5-25% of patients who have the virus in the blood cannot be found, the higher the concentration of HIV in semen remains. Such people doctors recommend during intercourse to use condoms, and their uninfected partners for prevention also taking antiretroviral drugs.
More efficient with a reduction in viral load in the sperm is struggling with the new class of drugs – integrase inhibitors, including dolutegravir. Now drugs belonging to this class are recommended as first-line drugs.
The researchers assessed the change in viral load in blood and semen at 3, 7 and 14 days, and a month later, three and six after the start of treatment. In the early days the figure is rapidly decreased, then the process slowed down and finally stabilized. Scientists have found that the integrase inhibitors, it was possible to significantly reduce the amount of virus in the semen and in the blood.
The authors explain that accelerate viral load reduction at the same time decreases the likelihood of sexual transmission of the virus. This is especially important for people who are at high-risk groups.