Prince of Uglich
In Troubled times to the top of state power often climb completely unexpected characters, the main qualities which are determination, courage and adventurism.
In the midst of the Russian Turmoil of the early seventeenth century Russia for a short time was in the power of man, the controversy about the identity of which are to this day, and proud Polish beauty ready to do anything for the Royal crown. And may their reign was short-lived trace in the history they left for the ages.
At the end of the XVI century, after the death of Ivan the terrible, Russia was facing the threat of dynastic crisis. On the throne of Feodor Ivanovich, the middle son of the terrible, not noted for robust health and had no heirs.
Before the latest Turmoil. Inconspicuous life of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich
In addition to Fedor Ivanovich, there was only one pretender to the throne of the ruling dynasty — the Prince Dmitri, son of Ivan the terrible from Mary Nude. The Prince together with his mother and entourage were sent to Uglich, which was given to him in the reign.
Strictly speaking, Dmitri Ivanovich could not claim the throne because he was born of the sixth, or, according to another version, the seventh of the marriage of Ivan the terrible, which was not recognized by the Church.
In may 1591, Dmitry of Uglich died under mysterious circumstances — according to one version, the accident, on the other, the victim of assassins.
In bed with the king. Ivan the terrible and his women
“Wonderfully escaped” unknown
After the death of Dmitry and death left no heirs of Fyodor Ivanovich, the new Russian Tsar, was elected Boris Godunov, to whom rumor attributed the murder of the little Prince.
At the same time, in the country there were rumors that the Tsarevich Dmitry was saved “faithful people” and will eventually return to take the throne.
Boris Godunov in the light of modern election technologies
Such rumors especially actively spread by the opponents of Boris Godunov, he hoped with their help to overthrow the king.
In 1603 on the background of the three-year famine in Russia caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people strong dissatisfaction and Boris Godunov, in Poland there was a man who declared himself “wonderfully escaped” Russian Prince Dmitry.
According to the materials of the investigation carried out on the orders of Godunov, “Prince” was a runaway monk Grigory otrepyev, the son of Galich nobleman Bohdan Otrepiev. Gregory was close to the family of the boyars Romanov, served as a clerk in the Chudov monastery, at one time performed secretarial duties at the Patriarch job. All this allowed him to gather the necessary information in order to make your own legend most likely.
Despite the fact that the version submitted by the Commission established by order of Boris Godunov, most researchers recognized the most compelling, absolute certainty that an impostor was Grigory otrepyev, no. Therefore, a man appeared in Poland in 1603, is often called False Dmitry I.
Grigory Otrepyev. Photo: Public Domain
Novel by calculation
False Dmitry, sitting in city Bragin in the service of the Prince Adam Vishnevetsky, after a while “opened” to him, claiming that he was the heir to the Russian throne.
Adam Vishnevetsky with a family member, Constantine Vyshnevetsky took care of “Prince”. The poles hardly believe in the high origin of the false Dmitry, but wanted to use it to implement their own ambitious plans, which consisted in the conquest of the Russian territories.
In 1604 Constantine Vishnevetsky lucky falsdmitry in Krakow to present it to the king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Sigismund III. On the way Vishnevetsky came to Sambor to his father-in-law the voivode of the Sandomierz Yuri Mniszech, submitting false. In Sambor false Dmitry met with the family of George Mniszech, including his youngest daughter , Marina Mnishek.
Yuri, aka Jerzy mniszech, was by nature an adventurer. His financial Affairs were not going well, and the idea Vyshnevetsky he saw a great opportunity to improve. Moreover, the ocean suddenly began to have signs of attention that his daughter Marina.
Researchers agree that there are no selfish reasons to have “Prince” in this case was not. Unprepossessing externally, the “heir to the Russian throne” just fell in love with the proud and arrogant Polish beauty.
Marina Mnishek, which at the time of the meeting with the False Dmitry was about 16 years old, was a gold digger and become a father. She dreamed of fame, power and wealth. Gutless and ugly, the native of Russia has not caused her nothing but ridicule, but the father drew her a glowing picture of its transformation in the Russian Queen.
False Dmitry I and Marina Mnishek. Engraving by G. F. Galaktionov beginning of the XIX century. Photo: Public Domain
It changed the attitude of the Marina to the admirer, and she showed him her favor.
At a private audience with Sigismund III “privately” admitted the false heir of Ivan IV, appointed annual maintenance of 40 thousand zlotys and was allowed to recruit volunteers for the Polish territory. In response, the false Dmitry was obtained promises after the accession to the throne to return to the Polish crown half of the Smolensk land, together with the city of Smolensk and Chernigov-Siver land, to maintain in Russia the Catholic faith — in particular, to open the churches and allow to Muscovy of the Jesuits, to support Sigismund’s claims to the Swedish crown.
False Dmitry in Poland was generally generous with promises and promises. In order to achieve consent for the marriage to Marina, he secretly converted to Catholicism and promised to pay Yuri Mniszech 1 million zlotys, not to embarrass the wife in matters of faith and to give her “dowry” — Pskov and Novgorod, and the city were supposed to stay behind her even if her “diplodia”, with the right to distribute these lands to their serving people and to build there churches. In addition to the Mniszech was promised Chernigov-Severskaya land without 6 cities that were passed to Sigismund III, and Smolensk region was divided between the king and the Mniszech.
This was followed by the engagement of Lzhedmitry and Marina Mnishek, and the wedding was postponed until the lessons of “the Prince” to the Moscow throne.
At this point in the company’s success is not believed by many even in Poland. Crown Hetman Jan Zamoyski openly called false Dmitry the impostor, believing that this whole adventure won’t end well.
Absentee marriage of the king
In August 1604 the salaried troops of false Dmitry I, collected Vishnevetskaya and Mniszech, entered into the territory of the Russian state. The war went on with varying success until the death in April 1605, Boris Godunov. After that, Godunov’s son Fyodor has been unable to retain power, the army and the nobility took the side of false Dmitry. In early June, 1605, in Moscow, was killed Fedor Godunov and his mother, and many of their supporters, and then Jun 20, false Dmitry triumphantly entered Moscow.
July 30, 1605, the impostor was crowned king, which is a unique case in the Russian history.
When they reached the throne, the false Dmitry, to the dismay of Sigismund III, was in no hurry to fulfill earlier promises on transfer of lands and the transformation of Russia into a Catholic country.
Another thing Marina was her he really wanted to see his Queen.
22 Nov 1605 in Krakow was held a big ceremony correspondence of the marriage of Lzhedmitry and Marina Mnishek, in which the groom was represented by a special Ambassador Athanasius Vlasiev.
The betrothal in absentia of Marina and Demetrius in Krakow in 1605. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org/ Shakko
In the spring of 1606 Marina Mnishek with his father accompanied by a large retinue went to Russia. Met her solemnly, as befits the Queen. May 3, Marina entered Moscow and met with the husband.
10 days Queen Marina
The influx of poles and arrogant behaviour of the Marina did not like Muscovites, but Dmitrii did not pay to such trifles of attention.
Had the wedding and the coronation of the Marina. But there arose the difficulty — a devout Catholic, which her spiritual mentors in Poland instructed to seek Russia’s transition to “Roman faith”, it was necessary to go through the Orthodox rites.
And then Marina showed his mettle for the crown spit on all the dogmas and principles and Venables in the Russian rite.
Happy life of Marina Mnishek as the Russian Queen lasted for ten days. Discontent and unrest among the people about Polish domination in the court of the false and arrogant Polish woman as the Queen was skillfully used by the organizers of the new coup, the head of which stood shuiski.
To help the conspirators was protracted wedding celebration, during which the visiting poles behaved, to put it mildly, challenging.
In the name of the Monomakh’s cap. Crime and punishment Tsar Vasily Shuisky
Russian charity for Polish beauty
27 may 1606 against the false rebellion, which participants declared that “the king is not a king and the pretender”. False this turn was caught by surprise. He fled, leaving his wife to fend for themselves, shouting to her something like: “Honey, treason!”.
This time his luck left — fleeing from persecution, he jumped out of the window and hurt his leg, once in the hands of the rebels. After a bit of bullying killed him, and then proceeded to mock already over the corpse. In the end, the mutilated body was burned, the ashes loaded into the gun and shot towards the Polish border.
If false no luck, Marina incredibly fortunate. It that alarm caught in their underwear, at first simply do not know. She managed to hide in one of the houses where the massacre was saved only by the courage of the guard who sacrificed their lives in the battle with the thugs.
Then help arrived, the Russian boyars, who with all the antipathy toward Marina did not wish her death. The deposed Queen was sent to the house of father Yuri Mniszech.
Who came to power shuiski sent Mnishek in Yaroslavl, where they lived until July 1608.
At this time Vasily Shuisky signed an agreement with Sigismund III, one of the points which change by stating that Mnishek return to Poland, and Marina no longer claim to Russian throne.
M. P. Klodt. “Marina mniszech and her father Jerzy mniszech under arrest in Yaroslavl”. Photo: Public Domain
The second attempt
But by that time Moscow was already under seige by the army of false Dmitri II. About the identity of the imposter is known even less, but his camp at Tushino to 1608, turned into alternative Russian capital.
In the eyes of their supporters of false Dmitry II, of course, was “wonderfully escaped” king of Dmitry Ivanovich, and then Marina Mniszek was his lawful wife. To confirm this, supporters of the impostor caught went Home Mnishek and took them to the Tushino camp.
Marina perfectly aware that false Dmitry II is not her husband, but such revelations could have killed her on the spot. But not only that, now she was required to fully fulfill marital obligations. Despite all his ambition, for such she was not ready.
However, Yury Mniszek, who has a new chance to once promised, the first False Dmitry, began to persuade the daughter to convince her of the need to deny ourselves for the celebration of the Catholic faith in Russia…
“The arrival of Dmitry the Impostor (the thief of Tushino) after fleeing from tushina”. The picture of Russian artist Dmitriev-Orenburg, engraving by Rashevsky. Photo: Public Domain
In the end, Marina surrendered. It was an ordeal — if the first false Dmitry was a well-read man, who had a show about good manners and also passionately in love with her, the second false Dmitry, people are rude and narrow-minded, considering it only as a household item. Despite this, the Marina even bore him a child who was declared Prince Ivan Dmitrievich.
In December 1610 the false Dmitry II was killed in Kaluga. Polish king Sigismund III proposed Marina to renounce claims to the throne, instead of having power over one of the two cities Sambir or Grodno.
The mother of the “heir”
But Marina, many survivors in Russia, refused to comply, setting itself against the poles. Her trump card had a son, who in the eyes of many was the Tsarevich Ivan Dmitrievich, the rightful heir to the Russian throne.
Its main pillar was the ataman of the don Cossacks Ivan zarutskiy, formerly loyal to false Dmitry II. Marina was drawn to this powerful man who became, as they say now, its civil husband. There is a version that Zarutsky was a real father, Ivan Dmitrievich.
Marina, Zarutsky, entrenched in Kaluga, Russia sent letters calling on them to unite around the “Tsarevich Ivan Dmitriyevich”. Then in 1611 they moved to Kolomna.
Bell Pozharsky. In Moscow ended with the Turmoil
Despite the fact that a number of cities swore allegiance to Ivan Dmitrievich, broad support Marina mniszech and Zarutsky is not received. For the little “Prince” has a nickname Varenok.
After the militia Dmitry Pozharsky and Kozma Minin took Moscow, dreams of Marina Mnishek on the Russian throne if not for themselves then at least for his son, finally crumbled.
The Zemsky Sobor of 1613 was elected new Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov. Zarutsky, who did not recognize this decision, declared a public enemy and sent troops against him.
The curse doomed
Ataman and Marina Mniszek began to lose the support of the supporters. They retreated to the South and by the end of 1613 and reached Astrakhan. Friends have been less and enemies more. In the spring of 1614 they laid siege to Astrakhan Kremlin.
“The flight of the Marina with his son.” Artist Leon Yan Wyczolkowski. Photo: Public Domain
The last refuge of Marina Mnishek son and ataman Zarutsky in may 1614 was Bear island on the river Yaik where they were captured musketeer head with a Proud Finger and head Sebastian was by Onuchina.
In July 1614, all three were taken to Moscow. The new government quickly sought to do away with the remnants of the Troubles, so the prisoners did not stand on ceremony. Ataman Zarutsky after torture impaled. taken from Marina’s son, who was only three years old, in December 1614 hung around Serpukhov gates of Moscow. According to contemporaries, the noose is not tightened on the neck of the boy, and he died from the cold only a few hours later.
The fate of Marina Mnishek reliable information there. It is known that the Polish ambassadors at the end of 1614, it was stated that “Marinkin son executed, and the Marina on the sickness and boredom on their own dead.”
According to the legend Marina Mnishek was kept in prison in the Round tower of the Kolomna Kremlin, which later became known as Marininoj.
In Russia, this woman stuck a very bad reputation. It was even said that she was able to turn into a crow and flew out of his dungeon, when she wanted to.
Another legend States that before his death, Marina cursed the whole family of Romanov, predicting that their killing will continue until, until you destroy the whole Royal family. In such a curse from the woman, which the Romanovs took everything including a young son, it is possible to believe.
On the other hand, Marina Mnishek chose her own fate. Engaging in a struggle for power, she lost it. But to lose in such a battle rarely show leniency.