“If you think of it and weigh it I’m good”
“If you think of it and weigh it I’m good. I have no hard feelings and there’s a kindness,” — said of himself in his declining years, a handsome white-haired old man, which few people could see a dark figure in a military uniform became a symbol of state terrorism and lawlessness 1970-1980-ies.
Augusto Pinochet, which no longer exists in this world, is still a matter of sincere delight from some and hatred from others. In the day of his death alone wore mourning, and the others danced and drank champagne.
His path to fame and glory began on 25 November 1915 in Valparaiso, Chile. Father, Augusto Pinochet Vera — was an employee of the port customs, and her mother was Avelina Ugarte martínez , a housewife, she was raising six children, including the future head of Chile was the eldest.
“In Santiago it is raining”. As the United States established in Chile, the fascist regime
For people from the middle class the way the elite of Chilean society was through military service. At age 17, after leaving school, at the Seminary of St. Raphael and the Institute of Quillota and Colegio sacred Hearts of the French fathers Valparaiso, Augusto enrolled in the infantry school in San Bernardo.
After graduation Pinochet in Junior officer was sent first to the regiment “Chacabuco” in concepción, and then in the regiment “Maipo” in Valparaiso.
In 1948, Pinochet entered the Higher military Academy of the country, from which he graduated three years later. Now service in military units alternated in purposeful officer with teaching at military educational institutions. In 1953, Pinochet published his first book entitled “Geography of Chile, Argentina, Bolivia and Peru”, defended his thesis, received his baccalaureate, after which he entered the law school of the University of Chile. However, to finish up my studies he never had: in 1956 he was sent to Quito to assist in the creation of the Military Academy of Ecuador.
Dr. Allende against the Amateur ham
On his return to Chile in 1959 Pinochet was moving the ladder up in 1971 with the rank of General took over the position of commander of the Santiago garrison.
This was the first appointment of Pinochet in the government of socialist President Salvador Allende.
The amazing thing — General Pinochet until 11 September 1973 was one of the most loyal Allende representatives of the military command of Chile.
Augusto Pinochet, 1973. Photo: www.globallookpress.com
“The lie is revealed in a look, and since many times I lied — I was wearing dark glasses” — so spoke about itself Pinochet. Indeed, sunglasses have become an integral part of the image of Pinochet. And for them he successfully hid their real thoughts and opinions.
The government of Salvador Allende initiated unprecedented for Chile reforms — affordable housing for the poor, ensuring that people from working-class families the opportunity to receive education and medical care and so on. A socially oriented policy was accompanied by large-scale nationalization, including in the extractive industries, where Allende “stepped on the tail of” representatives of foreign businesses, including American.
After that, against the Allende government was launched large-scale campaign both inside the country and abroad. Chile was economic pressure, radical right-wing groups unleashed a war of terror on the streets of Santiago held a “March of empty pots”. In these marches were not representatives of the poor and the angry ladies of “middle class”.
A traitor in black glasses
But an even bigger problem for the authorities began the opposition sentiment in the Chilean army, which has historically been a strong position of right-wing radicals and conservatives. The threat of a military coup in Chile every day became more obvious.
These sentiments, however, restrained the commander-in-chief of the Chilean army, Carlos Prats. This respected army commander declared loyalty to the President and thus stood in the way of supporters of the military interventions. It was believed that Pinochet shares the view of Prats.
29 Jun 1973 in Santiago was the first attempt of a military coup, dubbed “Tanquetazo”. This rebellion was suppressed under the leadership of Prats with the active participation of Pinochet.
Scandal in Chile: Pinochet is no longer the dictator
22 Aug 1973 wife of generals and officers, under the command of Prats staged a rally outside his house, accusing him of failing to restore civil peace in Chile. This event convinced the Prats that he has lost support among his fellow officers. The next day he resigned from the post of Minister of internal Affairs and commander of the army of Chile.
Prats his post was replaced by Pinochet, who was considered, as already mentioned, a figure absolutely loyal to the President.
Behind the black glasses could not see the eyes of the General, and read in them that day was a lot. For example, the fact that the preparation for this speech, the military is already several months that it actively involves representatives of the CIA and the American diplomats that Pinochet was not just a party, and the leader of the conspiracy. Many years later he will claim that he joined the speech at the last moment in the name of saving the country. However, the declassified files of the CIA will show that Pinochet was involved in the conspiracy still in the early stages of its preparation, at a time when he was appointed commander of the garrison of Santiago.
“Democracy must, from time to time to bathe in the blood”
On 11 September 1973 in Chile was a coup. The first was killed Allende supporters in the army and the Navy have identified them in advance to eliminate in the beginning. Then, army units began taking over government buildings.
The military coup in Chile. Photo: www.globallookpress.com
President Allende, who was at the presidential Palace “La Moneda”, was given an ultimatum: he offered to resign and leave the country on a special plane along with his family and retinue.
Allende refused, and then the military stormed the Palace. After a five-hour battle of the presidential Palace fell. President Salvador Allende shot himself in his office, not wanting to fall into the hands of the rebels. Rushed into the Palace, the military found the body of Allende in the workplace. Whether not understanding what the President is dead, whether out of hatred, the rebels shot dead the head of state, put it more than a dozen bullets.
“Democracy must, from time to time to bathe in blood to remain a democracy,” said Augusto Pinochet became the leader of the military junta after the overthrow of Salvador Allende.
The President Of Chile, Salvador Allende. Photo: www.globallookpress.com
His words he confirmed — for the first month when the junta was in power killed several thousand people. In Chile to this day don’t know exactly how many sources, loyal to Pinochet, talking about 3000 dead, his opponents argue that this number should be at least multiplied by 10.
After more than 40 years after the coup, remains unknown fate of thousands of missing people during the reign of Pinochet. Witnesses told that the stadium Santiago, turned into a concentration camp for opponents of the junta, corpses were stacked in piles. The bodies of the victims floated down the river Mapocho, part of the remains of exported military helicopters and dumped into the ocean.
Terror without borders
Among the victims of political terror were ordinary Chileans, and celebrities. The famous Chilean poet and musician, theatre Director Victor hare executioners broke his hands, tortured him with shock, and then, after long tortures, shot, releasing him with 34 bullets.
In the days of the revolution died the Nobel prize winner for literature Pablo Neruda. For a long time it was believed that Neruda, a close friend of Allende, died of natural causes, however, in 2015, Chilean authorities have recognized that the famous Chilean could be killed.
Nobel laureate Pablo Neruda. Photo: www.globallookpress.com
The military did not seek to understand who and what to blame. An employee of the Catholic edition of Carmen Mirador, not being a supporter of Allende, was arrested “just because”. Seven hours she spent on the rack, had been repeatedly raped, she was starved and beaten, broken legs, tortured with electric shocks, burned with cigarettes, had used the most sophisticated and disgusting bullying. The relatives managed to rescue her, however, from the transferred torment she soon died.
For the persecution of political opponents of the Pinochet regime established the Office of national intelligence (DINA), political police, which is soon dubbed the “Chilean Gestapo”. The agents of DINA were hunting for oppositionists and outside Chile. In 1974, as a result of a terrorist act organized by staff at the DINA in Argentina that killed General Carlos Prats and his wife. In 1976, in Washington, the killers, DINA, killed former Minister of foreign and internal Affairs in the Allende government , Orlando Letelier.
Supporters of Pinochet asking for the arrest of Raul Castro
Through the torture chambers of Pinochet regime passed the hundreds of thousands of Chileans went about a million forced to emigrate. Among the victims of the Chilean junta were dozens of citizens of other States who were in Chile at the time of the coup in September 1973. This circumstance will cause the prosecution of Pinochet abroad.
The country is not for the proletariat
“All that we military men did, we did for Chile, not for themselves, and we are not ashamed” is another statement of Pinochet, leaving no doubt as to his confidence in the rightness of their cause.
What is real, besides rivers of blood, gave Chile the Pinochet regime? That was his famous “economic miracle”?
As a basis for economic reforms under Pinochet were taken the ultra-liberal model, the adherents of which were made by Chilean economists, many of whom studied at Chicago under the guidance of Nobel laureate Professor Friedman and Professor Arnold Harberger. Therefore, the Chilean reformers made history under the name “Chicago boys”.
In this model, the country had implemented so-called “shock therapy,” large-scale privatization of state property, was taken strictly balanced budget, filmed all restrictions on trade with foreign countries, introduced funded pension system type.
In the new conditions the country has experienced foreign investment, resumed cooperation with international financial institutions. As a result, the economy under Pinochet began to grow rapidly.
However, excellent macroeconomic indicators do not reflect the picture of life in the country. Chile became a haven for employers, because when Pinochet was defeated and banned trade unions, but the workers were completely powerless and did not have the slightest protection from arbitrariness. On the background of the rapidly growing Central districts of Santiago, its working-class suburbs were trapped in poverty.
On the background of a fabulously wealthy elite, two-thirds of Chileans remained below the poverty line. Unemployment among the economically active population of the country under Pinochet has reached 30 percent, and the total volume of production and the average level of wages of Chile reached the level of the beginning 1970-x years old only at the time of the transfer of power to a civilian government.
“We are trying to turn Chile into a country of proprietors, not proletarians” — this phrase the head of the junta explained the essence of his economic policy.
And most importantly, the real Chilean economic miracle did not begin under Pinochet, and after the country was restored democratic system.
Pinochet in Madrid, 1975. Photo: www.globallookpress.com
As Pinochet was not given “to revive old”
About Augusto Pinochet accepted to speak as the leader of the military junta, although technically it is not since 1974, occupying the post of President. In 1980, he held a plebiscite, which adopted a new Constitution. In it, in particular, was supposed to free elections, activities of political parties and trade unions. However, it was stipulated that the entry into force of these articles of the Constitution is postponed for 8 years.
In the 1980s Pinochet with the US and the UK tried to get rid of the stigma of the bloody dictator and become a respected state leader. It was bad to forget what you did to Pinochet, it was impossible. Not contributed to this and the blatant anti-Semitism of Pinochet and his entourage, which from Chile, a mass Exodus of Jews. But in Chile have found refuge and strongly privechali were in hiding Nazi criminals, which helped Chilean security services to deal with the dissidents.
In the second half of the 1980s the Chilean regime began to pursue a more liberal policy. To provide international recognition Pinochet was staging a plebiscite, scheduled for 5 October 1988, which was a question of whether the President in office for another eight years.
Confident of success, Pinochet allowed the mass protests of his opponents and allowed the opposition to count the votes.
On the eve of the plebiscite on the final meeting at the pan-American highway, gathered more than a million people — it was the largest mass demonstration in the history of Chile.
A multimillion-dollar rally on the eve of the plebiscite of 1988. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org/ Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional
The first results of the voting on 5 October 1988 showed that close sensation — Pinochet lost. But then data transfer from the sites stopped, and there was a pause for a few hours.
Supporters of Pinochet did not like to remember about this situation, preferring to argue that the dictator voluntarily gave up his power. But the fate of Chile 5 Oct solved not only at the polls but also in the Palace, “La Moneda,” where Pinochet gathered the members of the junta and army generals.
He offered to cancel the results of the plebiscite to impose martial law, to ban the activities of opposition — in the General, Augusto Pinochet decided to revive old remembering September 1973.
But here, to his surprise, he came across fierce resistance associates. Chilean generals declared to Pinochet: the new revolution will not support anybody in the world, and the country will finally turn into a pariah.
After several hours of wrangling Pinochet surrendered. In the morning the country learned that the dictator go.
Dementia in the name of freedom
Augusto Pinochet took care of their security. After retiring in 1990 as President and handing over power to a civilian, he remained commander of land forces, thereby saving a real impact in the country. Only eight years later, Pinochet left this post, becoming a Senator that he delivered him from the threat of criminal prosecution.
Augusto Pinochet, 1995. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org/ Emilio Kopaitic
Confidence in its security played Pinochet’s cruel joke. In 1998 he went for treatment to London, where he was suddenly arrested. The warrant of arrest issued by the court of Spain, tens of citizens who were victims of political terror in Chile.
Began a desperate struggle between the prosecutors demanding the extradition of Pinochet in Chile, and advocates, who considered it necessary to show to the elderly, the retired dictator mercy and release him to freedom.
After 16 months of house arrest in London, Pinochet still was allowed to go home. However, his detention in the UK was the impetus for the beginning of criminal prosecution in Chile.
The last years of Augusto Pinochet spent in the struggle for their freedom. In August 2000, the Supreme court of Chile stripped Pinochet’s senatorial immunity, after which he was prosecuted on more than 100 counts related to murder and kidnapping and torture of people. In 2001, advocates succeeded for client exemption, but with a derogatory phrase — “due to dementia”.
“My fate was exile and loneliness”
In dementia, however, believe not all. 26 August 2004 the Supreme court of Chile stripped Pinochet of immunity from prosecution, and on December 2 of that year, the Appeals court made the decision on the beginning of the trial of the former dictator, accused of complicity in the murder of former commander of the land forces of General Carlos Prats.
In 2005-2006, new accusations began to grow like a snowball. Yesterday, supporters of Pinochet, those who were still alive, one by one, he ended up behind bars. The former head of the secret service DINA , Manuel Contreras, sentenced to life imprisonment, died in prison in the summer of 2015. A favorite of Pinochet, Brigadier General of the Chilean army, son of a Russian collaborator Seeds Krasnov Miguel Krasnov and to this day is serving a prison sentence for numerous torture and murder of Chileans and foreign nationals.
Pinochet himself, who, among other things, was accused of embezzlement, tax evasion, drug trafficking and arms trade, such a fate was avoided.
He died on 10 December 2006 after a severe heart attack at a hospital in Santiago. Only the news was spreading around the country, began in the streets of festivities and celebrations. For this reason, from the national mourning and state funeral, it was decided to abstain. After giving military honors body was cremated and the ashes secretly buried.
Two weeks later, after the death of the Pinochet Foundation published his farewell letter to the nation written in 2004, when, according to the lawyers, the former dictator was suffering from dementia. The letter, however, written by a man with a sound mind. Like all the last years of his life, Pinochet has tried to justify what he did: “it Was necessary to act with maximum rigour to avoid escalation of the conflict”.
“In my heart there is no place for hatred. My fate was exile and loneliness — something I never imagined and the last thing we wanted,” lamented Augusto Pinochet.
But it is unlikely that these words could soften anyone. In fact, reading these lines, post-mortem treatment, no one will be able to look to Pinochet in his eyes, which he so carefully concealed from the world.