23 November 2016 website of the organization “memorial” was laid out in open access the Handbook by A. N. Zhukov “the staff of bodies of state security of the USSR. 1935-1939”.
As stated on the website of “Memorial”, the reference book contains brief information about 39 950 NKVD, who received a special rank of the system of state security since their introduction in 1935 until the beginning of 1941, particular attention is paid to the time in the fall 1935 to mid-1939 the Handbook includes almost all who Spezzano was awarded during this period.
The organs of internal security: 9 facts from the history of the NKVD
“The appearance of the guide is a significant step towards a more in-depth and accurate understanding of the tragic history of our country in the 30 years of the twentieth century” – says “memorial”.
The publication caused a strong reaction in the Russian society. To the repertoire already used such epithets as “list of murderers” and “Wikipedia executioners”.
The question of publication was raised, even the press Secretary of the President of Russia Dmitry Peskov. He called the topic “sensitive”. “There are diametrically opposed points of view, and those and others sometimes act very convincingly”, — said Peskov.
That in fact is a published reference, and the passions that erupted around him Aify talked to a famous Russian historian, Director of Fund “Historical memory” Alexander Dyukov.
Andrei Sidorchik, Aify Alexander Residovic that in reality the guide posted on the website of “Memorial”?
Alexander Dyukov: It is an extensive list of nearly 40 thousand families, which provides data about the employees of the NKVD with the rank of “Sergeant of state security”. That is, it is the grassroots rank. Of course, later some of these people grew up in ranks. On each card, the individual provides data, in General, quite fragmented, engaged in their positions, and awards that he received. From a scientific point of view, for people who engage in the history of the security organs, the history of political repression, it is quite significant publication. It contains a lot of previously unknown information about specific people. In this respect, the publication, no doubt, significant.
The minutes of these interrogations is kept fully of source criticism, all that it says, really. The testimony of the people no one knocked.
Attempt to position all these names as “executioners”, is obviously unfounded. The collection included all the names that failed to install, but they are not of involvement in the Commission of any crimes, and as belonging to a certain rank in the system of state security. It is clear that not all of these people committed any crime, and not all of them were subsequently convicted of a violation of law in the period of mass repression of 1937-1938.
So statements about “list of executioners” is a deliberate lie.
“The GULAG archipelago”: the eyes of the writer and statistics
– That is, in fact, it is a reference for professional historians?
– Yes, for professionals it is useful. Thanks to this database for books, which I am now preparing, I was able to identify several people whose signatures appeared under the interrogation I’m interested in people. By the way, the truth, the protocols of these interrogations is kept fully of source criticism, all that it says, really. The testimony of the people no one knocked.
Speaking from a scientific point of view, it is a very significant publication. If to speak about the attempts of its political use, then, in my opinion, this thing is unpleasant. It is unlikely that this is the goal pursued by the author.
Among those who do fabricated criminal cases in the period of mass repressions, there were those who then died in the war.
– And what, in your opinion, caused such a stir around the publication?
– It’s all about positioning. Any, even neutral publication, through forming media by phrases about “the list of the executioners,” to bring to use in the right direction. I am sure that the publication of the “Memorial” another stage of its preparation involves the unwinding of the idea of “all these people are – executioners.”
Who were repressed in Soviet times?
– From 40 thousand given names what percentage actually involved in illegal repression during the “great terror”?
– Involved in fabrication of criminal cases and other illegal activities can be thousands.
– Among the above list of names are employees of the KGB, later killed during the great Patriotic war?
Yes. I’ll tell you more – among those who are really fabricated criminal cases in the period of mass repressions, there were those who then died in the war.
In recent months, the society dramatically exacerbated the discussion surrounding the events and personalities of the early twentieth century. Good examples are the fight around the Board Mannerheim, the debate around the Board Kolchak, a discussion of the personality of Nicholas II and so on. Now the passions around the list of employees of the NKVD. What is the reason, in your opinion?
– Next year – the 17th. The centenary of the great Russian revolution and the 80th anniversary of the mass repressions.
I am sure that the publication of the “Memorial” another stage of its preparation involves the unwinding of the idea of “all these people are – executioners.”
– You think the publication on the website “Memorial” dedicated to this?
– Of course. We must understand that in the situation of these two anniversaries of such scientific work will be kept up to date with the forces that try to influence society.