The second type, constantly putting off important things and as a result, many tasks remain unfinished. This is sometimes due to laziness, but in psychology for this condition there is a special term – “procrastination”.
How to overcome procrastination, says clinical psychologist Helen Haritonova.
The word “procrastination” (from lat. pro – “instead of”, “ahead of” and crastinus – “tomorrow”) means the tendency to a constant procrastination of important or unpleasant tasks. Her students begin to learn the subject the night before the exam, and the writing of the diploma start during the week before the defense. Procrastination prevents employees to perform work in a timely manner to deliver projects and reports. This condition negatively affects the ability to make important decisions. Due to procrastination spoil relations with customers and bankrupt the company.
Psychologists have determined reasons of procrastination
Or maybe it’s just laziness?
The problem of procrastination are much more serious than it seems at first glance. Habit to postpone important things to do is quite dangerous. It starts with a single delay, but eventually turns into a pattern. The burden of unfinished tasks cause the procrastinator persistent guilt. This condition is often called laziness, but lazy and a procrastinator, there are some differences.
The first difference. Lazy do not want to do anything and bleak attitude to new tasks. The procrastinators enthusiastically take up new projects, take on a mountain of Affairs, but to deal with them effectively or in time, they can not. Most often due to the fact that distracted by some other things.
The second difference. If the job is not completed on time, lazy people take it in their stride: not done – and right. The procrastinators begins self-flagellation and self-abasement.
The third difference. Done on time the job makes procrastinators great elation, they are very proud of the result and happy with myself. Lazy in this case, react more calmly, even indifferent.
The fourth difference. An important feature of procrastinators – the alleged optimism, especially when assessing the risk of failure of a particular case.
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Who is a procrastinator
The procrastinators – as a rule, people with low self-esteem. Most often they were raised by their domineering parents. If adults force children to do all things on schedule and control their every move to the beginning of adulthood, the child is not formed skill of independent planning and execution of the plans without a clear external stimulus (e.g., strict time limits or the promises). In this case, the man always carries his things for tomorrow, the day after tomorrow. He tells himself that he will do this, when it is more awake, when he will have more time, etc. Soon the lack of results starts to interfere with the work, and the person has a lack of confidence in their abilities and their professionalism.
Procrastinators are not just punching a clock – they replace the task with other things. For example, watch the news online or YouTube videos. Another important feature of procrastinators – low resistance to diseases. In psychology there is the term “disease care” when from the unwillingness to perform important job a person has real symptoms of the disease: high blood pressure, aching head, belly.
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To solve procrastination is a very interesting model came up with canadian specialist on system development Brian Tracy. He proposes to divide all put off the case for three large group.
First group: of the case-“elephants”
It’s a large business or large-scale projects which require a lot of time and effort. Such things cause people to have a subconscious fear: it is not clear where to start and how to begin this great work. Really, you can’t eat an elephant in one sitting. Divide it into individual pieces and start out with the “delicious” (interesting). Then people gradually drawn into the work, and soon the rest of the pieces “elephant” also be “eaten”.
Russian psychologists to perform large businesses propose to use personal motivation. For the procrastinator, a strong incentive can be a good financial remuneration for the work or given a promise to someone that does not want to violate.
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The second group: things-“frogs”
In the system Tracy is not very large, but unpleasant things that lie in my soul the heavy load and cause remorse. This “frog” – a strong stimulus: it is constantly croaking (he reminds himself). In reality, it can be unpleasant non-urgent phone calls, letters or meeting for which you do not want to go. Such things are better to do not delay (to”swallow” that nasty “frog”, then forget about it forever).
However, if a person begins to successfully perform unpleasant things-“frogs”, you may see the problem. When the work is necessary to perform such cases (for example, an unpleasant conversation with a man or boring task that nobody wants to do), they may be constantly charging the person who knows how to do them: “you’re good At it”. But in psychological and moral terms, performing unpleasant tasks for humans – a very costly task, so you must build a line of conduct so that such tasks do not become the main part of the work.
Third group: the business-“oranges”
So Tracy calls the same importance and the small volume of relatively simple cases. So they did not accumulate and was not a reproach to the procrastinator, business-“oranges” should be done regularly. It is better to take for a rule daily to do, for example, two such cases so that they are not accumulated.
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Solve the problem
To learn how to do all the planned things in time and without haste will help following rules.
1st rule: immediately make a list of pending cases (current and future).
2nd rule: prioritize and break big things into pieces. To make a to-do list in this order – first the most important, then less urgent and in the end those that had already lost its relevance, or from the beginning was not important or required. Large-scale projects and business-“elephants” need to be split into separate stages and to determine the specific deadline.
3rd rule: start the mechanism of rationalization, i.e. to create the basic conditions for executing tasks. If you are at work, don’t allow yourself to go into email or social network (it is better to turn off the Internet for a while). If you work from home, you need to turn off the TV and to warn loved ones that you are not distracted for a certain time (e.g. three hours).
4th rule: to organize the mechanism of substitution. To relax from work, you need to switch to another activity. If you work at a computer, switching on the communication on the Internet, reading books or watching TV is not considered a change of activity. For leisure, do exercise, go to the store.
The change of activity must be substantially, in this case, any polupoltina work will be better pseudopolis.
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5th rule: to tune in a positive way. Outstanding at the time of the case evoke a sense of guilt, but to overcome it requires a lot of mental and emotional costs. So you can not call yourself a loser: need step by step to build your actions that will help to change the situation, and begin to act immediately – at least with making a to-do list.
6th rule: to optimize the execution order of commitment. The worst list should be done immediately (to swallow these “frogs”, so they don’t croak). You can then proceed to the most pleasant and interesting matters, and then switch to the less interesting.
7th rule: to set time limits. For example if you are scheduled on day two of the cases, you need to take to implement them 2-3 hours, and then to please itself with something pleasant. But to do these things on a daily basis. This approach can be expanded a huge “elephant” in small business-“oranges” – and the work will move forward successfully.
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Sometimes a man have some personal reasons for procrastination, which prevent you to start doing the work. For example, he lacks any knowledge or need someone’s advice. Among the causes of procrastination can be fear of failure or fear to be trapped. The brake may be even fear of fortune – the fear that it would begin charging for more complex and responsible tasks.
All of the above applies to normal and psychologically healthy people who have serious motivation, but don’t have the discipline, self-discipline or the ability to plan and allocate their business. But the inability to gather, and putting off work for later can be a symptom of anxiety disorder or serious depression. In this case, the person requires the assistance of a therapist or psychiatrist.