Whole and in their skins. What vitamins are necessary in winter and where to get them?

– Of course, the shelves do not have those fresh seasonal berries, fruits and vegetables, which was rich in the summer and early fall. Nevertheless now you can find a lot of vitamin products, – says Lyudmila satnik, an expert on vitamins, doctor of technical Sciences. – Also, do not get hung up on the tomatoes, apples, peaches and strawberries, and to think that only they have vitamins. It is not so! There are vitamins in sauerkraut, meat, milk, buckwheat, bread, cod liver, and many other products that some people mistakenly believe levitamine. For information: in total there are 13 vitamins required by the human. 2 of them our body can produce its own. First, it is Niacin (PP) – it is formed in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of vital activity of the microflora. Secondly, vitamin D, which appears after the stay in the sun. However, now, in the absence of the sun, vitamin D, and 11 others we must get from food. And this should be done constantly, because to get enough vitamins for the future, alas, is impossible. Stock of most substances enough for 2-6 weeks, and B spent already after 4-10 days.

Askorbinka – orange, banana, pepper and cabbage

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For some reason, the people are of the opinion that the source of vitamin C – found in apples, grapes and fresh stone fruit (plum, cherry, peaches) and others Say they are certainly there, but it is so small that the benefits will be only from a pound of fruit or 3 liters of fresh juice.

But about the power of citrus people do not lie – to cover the daily requirement of vitamin C, should eat only one grapefruit, large orange or three Mandarin. These fruits due to the thick rind retains its useful properties and are quite affordable.

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More the tongue contains sweet bell peppers – a day only half of the fruit. But still quite a lot of vitamin in bananas to cover our daily needs it is necessary to eat 300 g Fresh berries that are also rich in askorbinka, now you can find only imported or frozen, but the cabbage on the shelves, just heaps. And it really is an excellent source of vitamin C! Fresh cabbage, cauliflower or broccoli for vitamin C is only slightly inferior to lemons and oranges, carrots exceeds 10 times, the onion, beets and garlic in 5 times, potatoes by 2.5 times. And cabbage has a unique property: if the product is askorbinka very quickly disappears, with sauerkraut it is well maintained. 200 g pickled cabbage can fully meet our daily need for vitamin C, the lack of which in late winter and spring is particularly acute. So eat healthy salad from fresh cabbage, serve sauerkraut, and then any deficiency will be dangerous. Well then, go fresh, seasonal tomatoes, greens, radishes and berries, and you can go with citrus-cabbage ascorbic diet to tomato and berry.

By the way, scientists who conducted a number of studies have found out that the main sources of the tongue for people in our country are not freshly squeezed orange juice and not even currants or strawberries, cabbage and potatoes. In potatoes vitamin C quite a bit (100 g – 6-20 mg), but our people in this scenario is gaining no quality, and quantity. According to Rosstat, every Russian in 2015, on average, ate 112 kg of potatoes 1 kg more than the year before.

Vitamin a – meat, milk, butter and carrots

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Vitamin A (retinol) our body needs just about milligrams per day, but from such meager quantities depend on visual acuity, and the ability to bear children, and the ability to resist infections. We can get the day rate of the substance in finished form, eating a total of 8 g of cod liver (canned), 10 g beef or pork liver, 4 eggs or 100 g of red caviar. Retinol is also in fish, butter, cheese, milk, cheese, yogurt, sour cream, yogurt, meat and sausage, but its content in these products is smaller. For example, to cover the daily need for vitamin, have to immediately eat a pound of cheese.

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If you are not a fan of fat, protein meal or fasting (lent this year will be from February 27 to April 15), you can take the necessary substance from fruits and vegetables, painted in a yellow-orange color. This orange, pumpkin and peppers, which are quite well preserved until spring.

And of course, the best source of retinol carrots, where you have to eat only 40 grams, to get his daily dose. However, in vegetables and fruit is a substance not in finished form, and as beta-carotene that becomes vitamin only in our body and is fat soluble. This means that the pepper, pumpkin or carrots for the vitamin And should be consumed with any fat. This can be a vegetable oil (they fill the salad with pumpkin and pepper), sour cream or cream. Otherwise, vitamin a, alas, will be held by the body.

Vitamins – bread, buckwheat, rice, liver

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In a friendly family of b vitamins can be easily confused because their six – B, V, W, B12, Niacin (vitamin PP) and folic acid. Each of them body requires per day is from 0.5 mg to a maximum of 30 mg. Despite the fact that folic acid need only 400 mcg a day without it man cannot live. This vitamin is especially necessary for pregnant women – that it affects the prenatal development of the baby.

Than harmful excess of vitamins?

To draw the substance group In need of two sources. First, bread flour, legumes and cereals – oatmeal, millet, buckwheat, rice, semolina and barley. This option will suit those who are fasting.

Secondly, from animal products. Especially rich in vitamins liver (beef, pork, chicken, cod) – it should only 100-200 grams per day, meat – 150-400 g poultry: 100-200 g, sausage – 200-400 g. And substances from protein foods better assimilation in the body. V from meat is absorbed at 80%, while peas and beans – 20%.

Vitamin D – fish oil, cod liver and egg yolks

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Vitamin D is called the “bringer of calcium” because without it the body cannot digest this microelement. This substance, of course, able to appear in our body by ultraviolet rays, but in winter and spring sunlight in our latitudes is not enough. Required amount you can get in the sunroom, under a quartz lamp or with food. A rich food source is forgotten today, fish oil, and cod liver and some species of fish. A small amount of vitamin D is in egg yolks and the rest of the food is almost devoid of it.

Vitamin E – from vegetable oils, bread and milk

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Vitamin E is called “bearing offspring” because it is directly linked with production in our body of sex hormones. The best source of this substance – vegetable oil: sunflower, olive, corn and others. Now in stores you can find some flax, sesame, though. Also vitamin found in bread from wheat flour, buckwheat, herbs. Vitamin E is present in milk. And in cow it is several times smaller than the female breast. That’s why doctors believe that the product from the cows will never replace the babies the nutrition provided by nature.

How to save a maximum of vitamins?

To vitamins are better preserved, boil the vegetables possible whole and in their skins. But if you throw it in the pan the chopped ingredients, wrap them in boiling water – it will kill the ascorbate. The pot should be tightly closed and the boiling is not too vigorous. Meat, like vegetables, for the preservation of vitamins is also better to cook.

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The most gentle types of cooking are steaming and roasting in foil or special package. Suppression only leads to more destruction of nutrients. The most “traumatic” method of cooking – roasting.

If you have to reheat the soup, do it in portions, and put each time to fire the entire pan. Re-heating food reduces its vitamin value.

When cooking foods of the vitamin goes into the broth, so pour it irrational. On its basis it is possible to make a sauce or vegetarian soup.

Of all the vegetables to soak before cooking, you can only legumes to reduce later cooking time. But they have to cook in the water in which they were soaked.

If you want to add vegetable oil to a soup or another dish, don’t fry with it vegetables, don’t do sauteed onions and carrots. Better add the butter to the pan after removing it from heat. Vegetable fats also have the vitamins that are destroyed in the roasting process.

The less time the vegetables are cooked, the better. To cook in the soup, and still retain maximum vitamins, you can use the method of “infusion”. Taken from the semi-fire vegetables after 15-20 minutes, able to walk and become soft, if the pan cover with a tight lid and from above to put on her warm towel.

Salad with cod liver in a glass

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Ingredients:

  • Cod liver – 1 Bank
  • Cucumber – 1-2 PC.
  • Egg – 5 PCs.
  • Potatoes – 2-3 PCs.
  • Greens – bunch

How to cook:

  • Potatoes and eggs to boil and clean.
  • Cut the potatoes into small cubes. Proteins separated from the yolks. Yolks to RUB on a grater (proteins can also be used, rubbed them on a cheese grater).
  • Cucumber cut into small dice, parsley chopped. The liver to promacot paper towel to remove excess fat, and cut into small cubes.
  • The first layer put potatoes, then liver, cucumber, egg yolk, parsley.
  • Salad with chicken breast and oranges

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    Ingredients:

    • Chicken breast – 2 PCs.
    • Arugula – large handful
    • Oranges – 2 PCs.
    • Onion white – 1 piece.
    • Balsamic vinegar, olive oil – for the filling
    • Salt, pepper – to taste

    How to cook:

  • Chicken breast fried in vegetable oil until cooked and cut into slices.
  • Oranges remove skin and transparencies to make a fillet.
  • Onion cut into half rings.
  • Arugula mixed with white onion. Salad season with salt and pepper, pour balsamic vinegar and olive oil.
  • On top of the salad put the chicken and oranges.
  • Liver in sour cream

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    Ingredients:

    • Beef liver – 500 g
    • Onions – 2 PCs.
    • Mushrooms canned – 1 Bank
    • Sour cream – 200 g
    • Flour – 1/2 Cup
    • Vegetable oil – 50 ml
    • Salt, pepper – to taste
    • Greens – for decoration

    How to cook:

  • Liver is cleaned from the films and ducts, cut into small pieces. Pour the milk for 2-3 hours. After that it will be more soft and tender.
  • Peel the onion and cut into half rings. In a separate bowl, mix the flour with salt and pepper.
  • Pieces of liver roll in flour and fry in vegetable oil.
  • On the other pan fry the onions, add the sliced mushrooms and cook 5 minutes.
  • To connect with liver and mushrooms, pour sour cream, stir, cover and simmer on a slow fire to full readiness.
  • Decorate the dish with greens.
  • Buckwheat with peppers and cheese

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    Ingredients:

    • Buckwheat – 1 Cup
    • Sweet pepper – 2 PCs. (red and orange)
    • Cucumber – 2 PCs.
    • Purple onion – 1 PC.
    • Feta cheese – 200 g
    • Vegetable oil – for the filling

    How to cook:

  • Buckwheat wash, pour 2 cups boiling water, add salt, cover with a lid and cover with a towel. An hour later, the buckwheat will be ready without losing any nutritional value.
  • Sweet pepper and cucumber cut into small dice. Chop onions. Cheese cut into cubes.
  • Ready buckwheat mix with the vegetables, season with any vegetable oil and spread on plates. Top each dish to put the feta and garnish with green onions.
  • Carrot-celery juice with cream

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    Ingredients:

    • Carrots – 2-3 PCs.
    • Celery – 5-6 sprigs
    • Cream – 50 ml
    • Fresh dill – for decoration

    How to cook:

  • Using the juicer to make juice from carrots and celery.
  • Pour the juice into a glass and add the cream only in the presence of fat contained in carrots beta-carotene will turn into vitamin A.
  • Decorate with fresh dill
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