One of the pre-revolutionary colleagues of the leader of the Bolsheviks left a curious record conversations with Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. The future head of the Soviet government reasoned:
Former Minister of foreign Affairs of the USSR Andrey Vyshinsky.
— The party is not a boarding school for noble girls. It is impossible to estimate the party workers to come up with a very narrow yardstick of bourgeois morality. Another villain can be for us and it was so helpful, he is a jerk…
When Lenin raised the question of what such-and-such a Bolshevik behaves in an unacceptable manner, he ironically remarked:
— We have a large farm and a large farm stuff useful…
Condescending was Lenin, not only to such “weaknesses” as drunkenness, debauchery, and criminality. Not only “ideological” expropriators of other people’s property, but in the ordinary criminal offenders, he saw the revolutionary element. And he is not alone. The closest ally of Lenin, Alexander Bogdanov, one of the most educated writers of the Bolsheviks, was echoed by the leader:
Shout against the expropriators, against robbers, against criminal… And the time will come of rebellion, and they will be with us. At the barricade the attacker, a repeat offender would be more useful Plekhanov.
WHERE IS THE MONEY?
The Bolshevik party always in desperate need of money. Extracted them, do not hesitate in means. Before the revolution, in particular, the Bolsheviks were convinced their fans — the millionaire Savva Morozov and owner of a furniture factory in the Presnya Nicholas Schmitt is to give them huge money.
But Nicholas Schmitt in the night of 13 February 1907 died in Butyrka prison, where he was imprisoned for his support of the revolutionaries. The younger brother of the deceased, Alex Schmidt, refused his share of the inheritance. All the money dispose of the Schmitt sisters — Catherine and Elizabeth. The Bolsheviks joined in the fight for his legacy. The struggle for money was a long and amoral, using fictitious marriages. Lenin was sure that two of the Bolsheviks wooed her sisters. One, Victor Taratura, made to his wife Elizabeth gave the Bolsheviks all their money.
Lenin edifying spoken to one of the companions:
— Victor is a good man because he won’t stop. Tell me, would you be able to run after a rich girl from a bourgeois class for the sake of her money? No? I would not, could not overcome himself, and Victor could… That’s why he’s an irreplaceable person.
The second sister, Catherine Schmidt, didn’t want to give all the money because she had obligations to the workers of the burnt down furniture factory. The Bolsheviks were still knocked out her third of the inheritance.
But officially the money was missing. Leonid Krasin, an engineer by profession, the future Commissar of foreign trade and Ambassador to England, tried to establish the production of counterfeit banknotes, even got the paper, but did not get on.
Lenin bless the creation of combat brigades and “military performances for the capture of funds”. The word “robbery” was not used. It was called “expropriation”. Lenin and his famous formula: “Rob the robbers!” What, in October, becoming the seventeenth Prime Minister, was sorry. Not that on his behalf have committed the robbery, and that he inadvertently spoke so openly.
In the seventeenth year of the money needed even more.
“Lenin and his group is now very rich, is surprised the famous sociologist Pitirim Sorokin, a number of Bolshevik Newspapers, pamphlets, proclamations has increased significantly… Where the money — that is the question”.
The financial statements of the Bolshevik party survived. Summer of the seventeenth investigators of the Interim government checked them carefully. The Bolsheviks deposited cash with the help of loans and donations. The Union traktirschikov took twenty thousand roubles and has resumed production of the “Truth.” Money for the publication of the army of the Bolshevik Newspapers under the pressure of military committees, gave the commanders of the fronts.
In may he bought for 225 thousand rubles typography on cavalry street. August 31, in the minutes of the meeting of the Central Committee wrote:
“The organizational Bureau made a report, which revealed that the state offices of the Central Committee is very weak (cash about 30 000) that individual companies aren’t reporting, and therefore very difficult to determine property condition…”
October 25 at the box office of the Bolsheviks was only eight thousand. But in October, the money did not matter.
THE NATION WAS FACED WITH ANGER
In February 1917, the strength of the Bolshevik party was only 24 thousand people in a country of 150 million people. April — increased to 150 thousand. By November — to 240 thousand. Despite the rapid in ten times! — growth, it was still a very small party. Leninists represented a minority of the companies.
Yes, summer of the seventeenth Lenin was accused of working for German intelligence. At the meeting of the Presidium of the Congress of Soviets of peasants ‘deputies Council and Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet of workers ‘and soldiers’ deputies was one of the leaders of the Petrograd Soviet Irakli Tsereteli. He was pale as a sheet, very nervous. In the hall reigned a tense silence.
— What happened is nothing short of a conspiracy, a conspiracy to overthrow the government and seize power by the Bolsheviks, — said Tsereteli. — The plot was defused at a time when we did. The weapon of criticism is replaced by criticism with weapons. Let us excuse the Bolsheviks — now we move on to other measures. The Bolsheviks need to disarm!
Famous all over the country lawyer Pavel Malyantovich has agreed to be Minister of justice in the Provisional government and at the same time the Supreme Prosecutor of Russia. He held these positions for long — before the October revolution, but had to give the order, which in the years of Stalin’s great terror of his shot:
“By decree of the Petrograd investigative authorities Ulyanov-Lenin Vladimir Ilyich should be arrested as an accused in the case of the armed intervention of the third and fifth of July in Petrograd. Because of this I instruct You to order the immediate execution of this decision in the case of these persons within assigned district. On the follow-up report”.
Hang these ads in Moscow and ordered the President of the 1st precinct Yakimanskaya Council Andrei Vyshinsky, not assuming that the rest of my life will be cursing himself for this act. But Stalin pardoned, did the Prosecutor of the USSR, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of foreign Affairs…
Summer of the seventeenth Lenin was very close to him Grigory Zinoviev, a member of the Central Committee and one of the editors of “Pravda”, disappeared, fearing the court and the prison. Lenin discouraged. Asked a Central Committee member Lev Kamenev note (it began with the words: “if I am going to kill ya”) in the event of his death to publish a book materials notebook “Marxism on the state”. Nadezhda Krupskaya recalled how going to go with hubby’s note to Kamenev. Lenin stopped her:
— Let’s say goodbye, maybe see you never.
They hugged each other. Lenin shaved his beard, altered his mustache. Sergei alliluyev (future father-in-law of Stalin) gave Lenin a gray cap and his coat. Late in the evening Lenin and Zinoviev carried to the seaside station. Under the protection of the working Sestroretsk arms factory Nikolay Emelyanov they suburban train left the station Tap. In August, Lenin forged documents moved to Finland.
It seemed that with the Bolsheviks gone. But the Provisional government was extremely liberal with their worst enemies. The arrested Bolsheviks quickly released. The party is not banned. After the Kornilov revolt, the Bolsheviks began to freely form armed detachments of the red guards, as they claimed, to defend the revolution, and nobody is prevented. On the contrary, after the General’s failure in the Bolsheviks saw the power to put an end to anarchy.
“During the February revolution, — recalled the witness, face in the crowd was joyful, reigned a good mood, strangers were hugging, all the speakers were willing to listen. In the fall it was the opposite. The nation was faced with anger — the anger of all against all”.
And in this atmosphere it was a professional underground, the militants and the terrorists, the organizers of the x’s and just people with a criminal mindset who suddenly gained complete freedom.
“Many of the returnees “political” prisoners have lost mental balance, — said the witness the revolution, the sociologist Pitirim Sorokin. — After spending many years in prisons and exile, dealing heavy and destructive personality of a labour, they inevitably bring to society the ways of relationships and cruelty which they themselves suffered in detention. They Harbor hatred and contempt for human life and suffering.”
All the preparation for armed insurrection in Petrograd was without Lenin. He was hiding, still fearing arrest. But he was the leader of the Bolsheviks, the unstoppable marching to power. On 15 September an article appeared the famous writer Leonid Andreyev:
“Through the puddles of red blood acts the conqueror of Lenin, the proud winner, winner — louder salute him, Russian people! You’re almost like a God, Lenin. What do you all earthly and human? Pathetic little people in awe over their miserable life, they are weak, fragile heart is full of anguish and fear, and you’re still and straight as a granite rock. As a God, you rose above their earthly and insignificant and contemptuous foot rose to their Fatherland.”
But nobody, and talented-insightful Leonid Andreyev, a star of the Silver age, including, not aware that the Bolsheviks will come for a very long time, and therefore asked the question: “Or are you just a forerunner? Who’s coming for you?”
TO BE CONTINUED:
Why the country’s armed forces and the officer corps did not prevent the Bolsheviks to overthrow the Provisional government?