“Step aside, Rockefeller! Move Over, Carnegie! Don’t cross the road, Ford!” These words started with the newspaper “new York times” his story about a new generation of philanthropists about the new direction of modern philanthropy in the United States, which entered the arena of life instead of the giants of the past, known as the “Golden era”.
Mark Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan.
It only took a few years for the new crop of super-rich philanthropists ousted the old guard titans of philanthropy of the past. New growth is a gates, Soros, Bloomberg, Mercer, Zuckerberg, and others. These new megadoor changed the nature of philanthropy as charity.
New shoots has earned a lot of money also, so to speak, at an early age. She spends it faster and writes breathtakingly checks. And most importantly, she does it in the most vital areas of social and political life (right and left) that pushes them to the center of contentious debates of our time.
Of course, in America you will find many of the billionaires who are still buying sports clubs, yachts, planes and support museums and medical institutions, are often forced to stick their names to their Gables. But the new philanthropists want another — not their names on the pediments of museums and universities, and “at least” change of life on our planet, of course, for the better. “They have the mentality of people solving problems. They don’t keep their money for a rainy day. They want to influence now,” writes David Callahan, author of the book “the Giver” about the current donors.
The new crop of donors who have earned billions, the company which can say that shape our world, poses a universal goal and are willing to give to reach them all his fortune. Here is an example of the Fund “Initiative, Zuckerberg Cheng” (Cheng – Mark’s wife). This Fund was created by Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan. It aims at not only improving health in developing countries. It declares its goal “the cure, prevention and management of all diseases by the end of the XXI century”.
Of course, such goals can only be welcomed. If billionaires are willing to spend to achieve this, their dollars, the honor and praise. But with the growth of their ambitions are growing and their influence on our lives — from medical research and social issues to politics. “This is not the government that collects taxes and decides what social issues it planned to address in a democratic way, says Eileen Heisman, head of the National philanthropic trust, a nonprofit organization working with foundations. — This is a very narrow group of people, earned more money than they ought. And here she decides what will be taken care of. And this, of course, affects us all.”
In 2015 the owner of Facebook Zuckerberg just turned 31. But he made the fateful decision. Together with his wife who just gave birth to a daughter, he decided to give to charity — “while we live” — 99% of their Facebook stock, valued at $ 45 billion at the time. “Our company must invest now in the lives of all those who are born, not just those who are already in it,” wrote Zuckerberg in a message posted on Facebook.
After two years, the Fund Initiative Cheng Zuckerberg had already taken shape. It is structured more like a Corporation with limited liability, than as a traditional Fund. This decision, according to the Startup, give the Fund greater flexibility. The Fund focuses on three main areas: science, education, and justice.
The startup already took away half a billion dollars to build non-profit research centre that unlimited is sponsoring the work of physicians, scientists and engineers from leading Californian institutions. Startup funding work to identify all cells in a healthy human body. At the end of last year, they agreed to allocate three billion dollars for the elimination of all diseases by the end of this century.
How to spend your billions, Zuckerberg largely imitates his friend and mentor bill gates. The gates Foundation was created in 2000 and since then has become the unquestioned leader of the world of philanthropy. He is not only the largest dollar support (about 40 billion). He spends annually more than other funds. So, in 2016, the gates Foundation spent $ 5.5 billion.
The efforts of gates spread across the planet. Their Foundation is making great efforts to reduce the use of tobacco, in the fight against AIDS, improving education in the U.S. state of Washington. The billions already spent by Gates on the taming of infectious diseases and malaria. The efforts of the gates Foundation helped the world health organization almost to eradicate polio.
Large charities, of course, existed and operated in the United States long before the gates. The Rockefeller Foundation, for example, began to operate in 1943 with the Mexican government to improve the agricultural industry of Mexico. It is this activity of the Fund spurred the so-called green revolution, which contributed to higher yields in many developing countries. The Ford Foundation contributed to the creation of so-called microfinance industry. Together with Muhammad Yunus, the Foundation launched the Grameen Bank.
In recent years these “old philanthropy” also began to deal with big problems of society. Today the Ford Foundation is busy with the problems of reducing inequality. And the MacArthur Foundation — the climate change of the planet. However, the activities of “old philanthropy” is the activity not of the old billionaires and their henchmen. In contrast, new generation philanthropists, such as Gates, Zuckerberg, Bloomberg or Soros, directly responsible for their funds without fear of conflicts that such intervention causes in the community.
Philanthropy politicized in the past. A hundred years ago, Julius Rosenwald, co-owner of “Sears Reback and company”, advanced in charity as a defender of African Americans. A rosenwald, a Jewish businessman from Chicago, he befriended prominent black public figure, Booker T. Washington, and began searching for places to build schools for black children for purely racist South of the country. When seclusionary burned these schools, he again restored them. And, of course, have made yourself the enemies. “Julius Rosenwald was the first philanthropist in the field of social justice. He broke the whole balance of forces in South America,” says of him Darren Walker, President of the Ford Foundation.
But this, according to Walker, was a “good thing”. Today Walker encourages donors to find “their own internal Goliusov of Rosenwald”. Philanthropy, he asserts, should not be “only a manifestation of wealth and power donor”. It should also be “a manifestation of humility, a manifestation of skepticism against the very systems and structures that create wealth. I hope that an increasing number of new generation of philanthropists understand the difference between generosity and justice.”
Straining his muscles donors on both sides of the political spectrum charity. Take the billionaire Koch brothers. It’s been known to support Republicans. It they do, and undermine the activities of the supporters of the ideas of climate change. They Finance conservative research centers in the University campusa. The Foundation of the family of the Mercers, led by Rebecca Mercer and supporting the President trump, funds the think-tanks of the conservatives, including such giants as “Heretic Foundation” and Institute of the Heartland. “Rich as popularized as the rest of America, says Callahan. — Now moved into the arena of new forces of liberal and progressive rich people. More of them than ever before. But on the other hand, we have the rich conservatives. There is a escalation of the arms race among megadonors”.
John MacArthur made his billions in the insurance business. When the end of his life — in the seventies of the last century — he created his Foundation, MacArthur did not have a clear perspective on what and who should serve the Fund. “I know how to make money, and you guys have to consider how to spend it”, said MacArthur to Fund managers.
The majority of the billionaires of the previous generations began to think about his donation until the end of life. Now this trend is changing.
What is the dilemma of the modern American billionaires philanthropists? A huge number of days and little time to use them. Zuckerberg with his wife saying that he decided to spend on philanthropy his entire fortune while they are still alive. That’s why they patched philanthropist at such a young age. “Giving, like everything else, requires practice to become effective. Therefore, to fully master this craft in 10-15 years, we must start now,” says Zuckerberg.
But earlier, Zuckerberg continues to make money: “All the good that we do will eventually come together. If we help children get a good education now, then when they grow up, they will help others.”
Gates and the other billionaire investor Warren Buffett have launched a campaign “Promise to give”. This promise encourages the wealthy to give at least half their fortune to charity while still alive or after death. They urged their fellow billionaires. Gates on their website call themselves “impatient optimists”.
Experts argue that the United States entered a new era of “big philanthropy”. Wealth quickly created and just as quickly focus. Born new megafund that reflects the priorities of their creators. Just as Soros, gates, and other Zuckerberg ousted and overshadowed the titans “Golden age”, they also are doomed to their fate. Sooner or later they will lay a new wave of even more rich and “impatient optimists”…
All that being said, they have. And we? Objective reasons — old age in the first place — bothering our billionaires. We do not have such a concentration of wealth in the United States. But the thing that hinders the development of philanthropy in Russia is a social state. Therefore, the Russian rich people prefer to invest in football or basketball clubs, yachts, palaces, planes, bestow theatres and academic institutions. A room of wealth are not afraid of the government, and therefore welcomed it. Another thing is genuine philanthropy, which accelerates the maturation of social companies. The power of her fears and encourages. Money does not make Russian billionaires are untouchable, as evidenced by the classic example of Khodorkovsky. That’s why when the head of the Russian state meets the monetary elite of the country, she envelops him in a veil of respect and reverence. This situation is satisfied, and the father of the nation, and those who are sucking the juice. And to think about what will be Russia 300 years later, this category is simply ridiculous.
There can be no genuine, that is, social philanthropy in a country where the rule of “After me the deluge”.