At the 68th International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide Roscosmos and NASA signed a joint statement on cooperation in the field of research and exploration of deep space. We are talking about creating a new space station Deep Space Gateway in highly elliptical orbit of the moon. This station will be to mankind the gateway to deep space.
TPK “Soyuz TMA-M” ISS.
Roscosmos becomes a full participant in the project. Bringing their know-how, Russia can create from one to three space station modules. Other ways of participation, in particular the use of our transport systems for delivery to the station loads. Participation in the project can take and other countries.
The Director General of Roscosmos Igor Komarov reported that the already known time of the first launches within the framework of the project: “We agreed that we will jointly participate in the creation of a new international lunar station, Deep Space Gateway. In the first stage we will build the orbital part with the prospect of further application of proven technologies of on the surface of the moon and subsequently Mars. The output of the first modules is possible in 2024-2026 years.”
And in 2018 should be determined by the technical character and the participation of each country in the project of a lunar station. In 2023, the US plans to launch at the moon my ship with Orion propulsion and energy module, which will provide the station with energy 40 kilowatts generated by the solar panels. Later, in 2024 and 2025, the vehicle will practicuum two residential module. Russian airlock module for the spacewalk will be based on the module “Pirs” and “Nodal” currently used on the ISS. But it will be designed under the new uniform standards — the voltage of the power supply and system interfaces. In the Russian schedule it to run is in 2026.
For the full cooperation of the new station, the parties should come to common standards. Therefore, the partners agreed to develop international technical standards to be used in the future, and other countries joining the project. Roscosmos and NASA have come to an understanding by the standards of the docking station future station. Given the serious domestic experience in the development of docking, these elements of the lunar station will be established on the basis of Russian developments — as well as the standards of life-support systems. And these standards will help in the future when creating new space technology and to promote the involvement in the project more partners.
The main role in creating the airlock module Deep Space Gateway for spacewalks and to develop an international standard docking station belongs to one of the parent enterprises of Roscosmos, RSC Energia, which is one of the most competent developers in the world rocket-space technology — launch vehicles, satellites, space stations, manned spacecraft, manned space stations and their modules. Vast experience of RSC Energia in the development and modernization of manned and cargo ships will be the basis for the unification of the future station.
RSC Energia develops and manufactures now a new manned transport spacecraft “Federation” which is a special vehicle (its mass will grow to 20 tons) will become part of the Russian lunar program. However, this does not preclude the use of “Federation” and the Russian-American project.
Roscosmos is sure that the cooperation on Deep Space Gateway can evolve and take different forms. Executive Director for manned programs of Roskosmos Sergey Krikalev believes that the prospect of a possible contribution by other Russian technologies in the moon space station: “While we are talking about the participation of Russia in creation of the airlock module. But in the future may also use our transport systems of carrier rockets and spacecraft, part of the Russian robotic spacecraft series Luna in the choice of locations of landing a man on the surface.”
According to Krikalev, along with the American SLS rocket when sent to lunar orbit may be involved proven rocket “proton-M” and the new “Angara-А5М”. If the first domestic carrier has long been well known to Russian and foreign consumers of launch services, then the “Angara” the world market has yet to meet. Its development has been GKNPTs im. Khrunichev. The rocket is created on the basis of a prototype “Angara-A5”, but with maximum preservation of core design decisions by implementing improvements that significantly improve technical and economic characteristics. It will be applied to new universal rocket module (URM-1M) with the upgraded engine, the RD — 191M. This booster can also be used for delivery of the gateway module on the lunar station in 2026.
Yes, the new large-scale project is a new cost, and the partners in Deep Space Gateway converge in the General opinion: looking toward the moon to go from low earth orbits is impractical. ISS provides lots of useful information, so more and more countries are interested in working in Earth orbit.
Research in low-earth orbit should continue — I agree Sergei Krikalev. — We have an international laboratory, where he continued work and research, we receive new data. In its current form, the station will last until 2024. But then it must continue to exist. Whether it’s one svobodnymi module, visited, or permanently inhabited — it is discussed — said the representative of Roscosmos.
Roscosmos systematically changes the space industry, using new approaches, contemporary management principles, improving product quality, the first public-private partnership. The Corporation is engaged in the commercialization — including commercial experiments on the ISS. The space should serve the people — here and now. And cooperation in creating the new lunar station is a real incentive and a unique opportunity for domestic enterprises. Obviously, it is necessary to go forward, to reduce the cost of access to space, to create a system with a long service life and minimal maintenance and to make space more accessible and safer. Then “the gateway to deep space” will always be open.
REFERENCE: the Station will be placed in highly elliptical lunar orbit with an altitude at apogee of 70 thousand kilometers from the moon. In the first phase, discussed different options, including the construction of the station in low lunar orbit. And was chosen that provides more options for deep space exploration, while retaining the possibility of landing humans on the moon. The duration of the expeditions can range from 30 to 360 days, and the flight to the station will be held once a year.