In the darkness of captivity. Mute Onegin. Part ten

Mute Onegin. Part I.

Mute Onegin. Part II.

Mute Onegin. Part III.

Mute Onegin. Part IV.

Mute Onegin. Part V.

Mute Onegin. Part VI.

Mute Onegin. Part VII.

Mute Onegin. Part VIII.

Mute Onegin. Part IX.


photo: Alexander Minkin
Lenin pondered the letter.
…Working on the text “Mute Onegin”, the author of one of the museums of Yerevan stumbled upon a wonderful portrait of Lenin and Pushkin. Work 1934. Judging by the facial expression, the leader takes the decision to destroy the Russian classical literature.


photo: Alexander Minkin

XXVI. Witticism

At the end of the Fourth Chapter in winter Lena came to the village to Onegin for dinner.

Of Veuve Clicquot or Moët
Blessed wine
In the bottle frozen for a poet
On the table at once made.
It sparkles Pokreni…

Bottle for a poet — for Lena. But the words “bottle” and “poet” immediately knocked Pushkin’s another memory from his personal life.

It sparkles Pokreni;
It’s his game and foam
(The similarity of this)
I was captivated for it
The last poor mites used
Gave me. Do you remember, friends?
His magic jet
Born stupid is not enough,
And how many jokes and poems,
And disputes, and merry dreams!

The wine I was captivated — this is the Pushkin of himself. Playboy idle — that’s the whole self-portrait. Jokes, poems, the dreams — everything is smooth, easy, carefree. But one place sticks out — the attentive reader stumbles.

What do you mean “the likeness of this”? Not found, nothing to compare? Lazy? He that 20 times altered the verse to find the exact words. But why-that even in brackets stuck. To draw attention to failure? Because the parentheses in “Onegin” is a rarity.

Lotman in his “Comments” explain: there are three lines, two of leprosy. First: just then was printed the “Feasts” of Baratynsky, where about wine said:

It hides courage,
It zvezdama moisture
Divine soul is full,
Freely she sparkles;
As a proud mind abhors captivity,
Tearing the tube frisky wave —
Joyful splashes and foam
The likeness of the life of a young.

A proud mind abhors captivity — what is this?! Revolution? The Decembrists? If you’re a “proud mind”, then who are the “tube”? Apparently, a comparison of wine with a proud mind. This story was on everyone’s lips. Pushkin found a way to remind you to make fun and to get around. To find fault with the expression “of this” impossible. Those few who knew “the case of Baratynsky”, everyone understood and laughed. But immediately after this, without a pause, followed by a second escapade.

…for him (for the wine)
The last poor mites used
Gave me. Do you remember, friends?

Pushkin gives his last penny for a bottle of wine. It would seem, nothing wrong with that. But here is the exact quote — a literal repetition of three words from the famous and grandiose poems Zhukovsky “Emperor Alexander”.

More enthusiastic praise we’ve never met. Here is a small fragment (for better understanding please read aloud, solemnly):

At Lear proudly lifts the gaze of the singer.
Brave century, when singer king — not a flatterer,
When praise — delight, the voice of the lyre is the voice of the people,
When everything is sweet for the heart: honor, freedom,
Greatness, glory, peace, the Fatherland, the altar
All, all merged into one Holy word: king.

True, okay? Further not worse:

And who doesn’t boils enthusiasm chants
When Poverty and under the roof oblivion
The last poor mites for your face gives

He, like the other shadow welcome light Liet
A silent presence in the abode of suffering.

For readers unaccustomed to speeches of this kind, and most importantly, from this vocabulary and these structures (much more complex than the “clean field system “Grad”/ us Putin and Stalingrad”), we should, perhaps, explain what the picture described. Homeless, living in a rotten shed (under the roof oblivion) gives the money for the countenance of the Emperor; and this portrait illuminates the healing light of the kennel the poor man, silently consoling the hungry by its silent presence in the abode of suffering. (Now, thanks to the development of Sciences, the portrait of the Emperor was speaking, answering any questions in a Straight line.)

Encouraging light-Liet — that is, works with TV: nourishes, warms, comforts, heals (as Deepak). Scalded with boiling water poetic enthusiasm, people do not see absurd mistake: the shadow pours the light! Or is it consciously? Like, even the shadow of the Emperor shines, low breaking the laws of physics.

These verses were printed in great quantities, knew them by heart. And Pushkin, giving “Onegin” last poor mites per bottle, knew what he was doing; knew that everyone will understand. Someone burst out laughing, someone will be terrified of insane courage, someone will be offended, and someone will certainly and immediately bring.

Here (above and below), the words “all” and “always” are relative and addressed to understand and friendly to the reader. He understands that “all” — in the words of Pushkin’s exile is some part of the Russian nobility. Peasants (serfs and free), their children and women — that is, 97% of the population did not know and could not know. Provincial landlords? Where! They all read “calendar ozimogo of the year.” So “all” — it’s about 5 people out of 50 million or 0.01 percent. If arithmetic I forgot, help: a hundredth of a hundredth of.

Lotman in the “Comments” quoted from Zhukovsky, only two (underlined by us) lines and called the trick Pushkin’s “ironic hint”. But it is much more than an ironic hint. This is the answer. A slap in the face, though poetic. And at what time! Pushkin in exile. Saslavsky him on the throne of the Emperor Alexander I. Zhukovsky trying to stand up for exile. And at this moment to write this…

About Onegin, far from poetry, it says:

High passion not having
For sounds of life don’t spare…

Pushkin had this passion. Sometimes she drove him crazy. Took him by the collar even better than the gloom which

Caught behind the goal took
And in a dark corner locked.

“For sounds,” he spared neither his life nor anyone else’s. Severely hurt writers, Actresses, mistresses, friends, and the king, of course. Did not spare even Zhukovsky — the friend, the eternal intercessor, teacher. Touched in passing, but mercilessly.

Yes, the Fourth Chapter was printed only in 1828, when Alexander Pushkin was already released, and Alexander I in the grave. But it was written in 1825, And isn’t punished for unpublished? It is for unpublished and could in prison to put. Could at any moment to come in and collect all the papers. And Pushkin is well known.

For the sake of the sounds (for words) to risk your life — it is rather the duty of a prophet and not a poet. The prophet is ordered from above. The poet acts according to his own will. But not always. “Oh legs, legs” — it’s quite personal. But it’s different.

But only the divine verb
To the ears of a sensitive touch
The poet’s soul tremble…

The divine word is the voice of God. How can we keep silent? And silent — would be a gift.

…It is important (and in the “Comments” Lotman word about it): there is another response to Pushkin’s “Message”. But to fully appreciate the answer, we must first quote some fragments of this ode Zhukovsky, which was then known to all, and now almost anyone (textbooks not included).

Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky
EMPEROR ALEXANDER
Message

Everywhere the abundance, hope and peace.
And all these things, our king, the land will be you.
His soul is pure in her goodness,only one,
Only flame good it is inflamed…
The Commissioner from the sky judge —
Oh, how divine in this hour thy soul!
This full gaze of love, this gaze of inflamed —
For us it was built by the ruler of the universe;
Bow, the king of the earth, knee before you,
Fearless under your invisible hand
Your intentions over them performer!..
Rest, my people, do not sleep your Keeper…
In the hall, in the cabin, everywhere one language:
During the holidays families decorated your face —
Cheering native native charity
Stands on the table persiska fun viewer
And bowl first and the first hymn you;
A blooming young man thanked fate,
In your beautiful life, he starts to life,
And thank him for coming burns;
The old man, his gaze on the coffin afraid to tend
And hasty death he prays to the weather,
To life best color bloomed in front of the grave…

Okay? Old people ask for death, so she gave them to live longer in an earthly Paradise under the rule of Alexander I. Then you already know that When the praise — delight, the voice of the lyre is the voice of the people,/ the Greatness, the glory, the peace, the Fatherland, the altar/ All, all merged into one Holy word: king./ When and Poverty under the roof of oblivion/ Last poor mites in your face… And then gives this:

Let a vow of fidelity, homeland, and honor
For the king told us to sacrifice a life to bring
From the kneeling subjects of the king;
But the tribute free, tribute to the heart — the respect,
Not the government, not the crown, but the man tribute.
O king, not the scepter of the shining hand,
Not the ashes of the patriarchs given strength
You love your peoples conquered,
But the throne of beauty — the great soul.
Immortal deeds humbly performs the follo,
Look upon your people, proterty before thee,
Bless his sovereign hand;
Led by thee, with the glory of perished
Specified by the Creator of the path of experience and the troubles
Transformed, filled with new life
For mania king for all, all ready…

Uncle Sasha, we are with you! Ready for you to battle!
Here, surrounding your throne, Bless,
Podjele the hand to the arm of your sacred;
As before the awful Shrine of the altar
Our vow in front of her: all in sacrifice for a king!

Ode we have reduced by one third. Whether old, whether fresh, or something out of the life of the padishah, or the pharaohs, or about yesterday… or today, or tomorrow.

The answer of Alexander Pushkin (also a message) is “To Licinius”. The subtitle of “Latin” was staged just for the sake of censorship. No Latin original does not exist. Otherwise, it b said, of Martial, Catullus, Horace… And “Latin” is the village of my grandfather — go, Buh-bye. A few years later Pushkin the tagline removed entirely.

This message is the most severe denunciation and lackeys, and the vicious slave society, and the Emperor himself.

Alexander Pushkin
TO LICINIA
(Latin)

Licinius, Mature? on a fast chariot,
Crowned with laurels, in a brilliant scarlet,
Arrogant lolling, Vituli young
In the crowd of folk flying on the pavement.
Look, like everyone before him hard in the back going,

As the lictors shelves people miserable chase.
Flatterers, senators, damsels long series
With humility he sweetly Mesut opinion,
Waiting in the secret thrill of a smile, eye movement,
Like marvelous gods blessings;
And small children, and old men with gray hair
Strive all behind him and eyes and soul,
And even the track wheels in the mud zapechatlenny,
As a kind of monument they think sacred.
About Romulan people! before whom you fell in the dust?
Before anyone Voskobitova in the soul of such a low fear?
A favorite of the despot, the Senate is ruled by weak,
Rome held the yoke, the Fatherland besluit.
Vituli, Romans the king!… Oh the shame! Oh, the times!
Or the universe to death devoted?

But who under the portico with his hands behind his back,
In a tattered cloak and with a miserable crutch,
Hanging his head, a frown coming?
I’m not mistaken, the philosopher Dame.
“Damit! where, tell me, in clothes so shabby
In Rome a lush wander your way?”

“Where? I don’t know. The desert I’m looking for.
Among the debauchery to live really more do not want;
Lapatovich children, the vices, malice see
Ever leave Rome: I hate culture”.

Licinius, a good friend! isn’t it better for us,
Giving a nod to the dream, fortune, vanity,
Grizzled stoic example to learn?
Not the best weapon as quickly as possible with hail to say goodbye,
Where all at the mercy of the laws, right
Wives and husbands, and honour, and beauty?
Let Gliceria, beautiful young,
Still all shared, like a Cup pie,
Others inexperienced in the Lubovna reception;
We are ashamed of weakness with wrinkles have.
I heart Roman, seething in the breast of freedom
I did not sleep the spirit of a great nation.

About Rome! about the proud land of lechery, of evil,
There will come a terrible day of vengeance, punishment;
I foresee the terrible grandeur the end
Fall, fall in the dust of the universe crown!
The peoples of the wild, the sons of fierce battle,
War is a terrible PREV bloody sword in hand,
The mountains and sea reserves
And will rush at you, boiling river.
Rome will disappear; it will cover the darkness of the deep;
And traveller, drawing on heaps eye
Saith in thought, in dreams deepened:
“The freedom of Rome increased, and slavery destroyed”.

Last 12 lines of a terrible prophecy. Rush cruel savages, and Rome shall perish; but not from aliens, but from his own slave decomposition. And what’s the difference — from a distance, if rushed to the merciless savages, or rose own cultivated own. (And better not to remember that Moscow is the Third Rome.) Such poetry, such verbs, of course, burn the hearts of the people. These verses cannot write formally. Smoothie valid cold calculation; his enthusiasm always has a distinct disgusting taste. When it denounces the poet or prophet personal gain they are looking for. Conviction brings only troubles. Sometimes prison and exile, and sometimes death. Conviction — only from the heart.

This is a severe political poetry. In the desert! Because you cannot change neither the Emperor nor the society. In the desert!

And when was it written? The “message” of Zhukovsky, was released in 1814. “To Licinius” was published in the journal “Russian Museum” No. 5, 1815. Pushkin was 15 years old. Poetry with a burning soul. It is hard to imagine that readers did not understand, did not see that this is a response to a message to Alexander; the editors of the journal. But in addition (the irony): in message, Alexander said Alexander.

“Latin”! Nobody believed him, understood it all, but the formality was observed. So swift denounced the vicious manners of the English court, describing the stupidity and folly of the king and the Ministers of lilliput.

In 1816, the Director of the Lyceum Engelhardt wrote about Pushkin

His mind, having no insight, no depth, absolutely superficial French mind. His heart cold and empty… maybe it is as bare as it never happened the heart of youth.

The Director wrote about a cold empty heart, knowing the verses of “To Licinius”. Could not know it, his student was published. Moreover, the previous No. 4 “the Russian Museum” was printed the famous “Memoirs in Tsarskoye Selo”, caused excitement and amended, and (then) Derzhavin.

The answer is “Licinius” for future friendship is not affected. And direct injection (reproach), a direct quote in “Onegin” is also not ruined relations. Noble rootless Zhukovsky remained ardent defender of Pushkin in front of the throne.

The poem “To Licinius” — is not accidental. A deliberate and revolutionary. Romance, the thirst for freedom burned (as is not lighted paper?), and the fire were forced to attack the best. Angry epigram to tears upset the great Karamzin.

In his History elegance, simplicity
Prove to us, without any bias,
The necessity of autocracy
Pleasures of the whip.

Pleasures of the whip in the epigram 1818-th — is not random words. This idea will be repeated in 1823-m: pasites, peaceful people — an inheritance you (for generations to come) the yoke and the beach.

Boy attacked best — in Zhukovsky, Karamzin! — attacked desperately. This is a passionate heart. Shame On You, Engelhardt.

XXVII. In the darkness of prison

Today we can’t even imagine how he lived in St Michael’s and how he felt. The reference was indefinite. It is now the convict knows how it sit. And if you behave well, then halved. But Pushkin was exiled without trial. Perpetuity — i.e. forever.

In the middle of nowhere, in the darkness of confinement
Stretched quietly my days…

The darkness of the prison — he saw his terrible position. Friends were amazed, almost more than the exiled.

P. A. Vyazemsky, A. I. Turgenev
13 Aug 1824.
Who is the Creator of this inhuman act? Or not a murder — sharpened ardent, ebullient young man in the village Russian? True, the government was deceived about gossip. And what is the punishment for guilt that are not appropriate or under what right? Is it in capitals there are no people more guilty of Pushkin? See how many of them splattered with mud and blood! And here for a thoughtless word, a careless verse betray the person on the victim. And comprehend whether those which have involved the government in this measure that there is a link in the village in Russia? Must be a spiritual hero to resist this torture. Fear for Pushkin. At his age, with his soul, which is also seething abyss of fire, you can’t expect to have one lesson, one activity thoughts dovolstvovalas it. There inevitably will take your medicine göttingen: drink the punch. I admit, I don’t have another look at the link of Pushkin, as in coup de grâce (
death blow.— FR.), what struck him. Do not anticipate for him the Exodus from this abyss.

Pushkin did not know that it will be released. Would know that in September, 1826, waiting for his freedom — wasn’t planning an escape. And he planned in detail: the route, the necessary things, fake paper… He admitted that the reference to the eternal in the wilderness, in the darkness of imprisonment — not just radio and TV, but without companions (which at present exiled there). A deadly condition. And — Onegin! Sparkling, light, ironic; without sadness; today would say, positive.

From the Emperor he did not expect forgiveness. Requests (to go abroad for treatment) remained unanswered. Alexander I was in the Prime of life, to count on his impending death was impossible.

Pushkin, P. A. Vyazemsky
27 may 1826.
You, who are not on a leash, how can you stay in Russia? If the king would give me freedom, I will not stay a month. We live in a sad age, but when I imagine London, the iron road, steam ships, English or Parisian theaters and brothels, my deaf Mikhaylovskaya makes me sad and mad. The 4th song of Onegin I’ve pictured my life; someday will read it and ask Milou smile: where is my poet? it talent is noticeable. Hear, sweetheart, the answer is: it ran away to Paris and never cursed in Russia can not be undone, — Ah Yes, clever! Goodbye!
Dear doctor do a very drunk man told me that without surgery I will not make it to 30 years. Not fun to die in Pocetkom County.

This is the time when he wrote the Fifth Chapter, which is terribly blamed for the fact that “nothing happens”. And Tatiana’s name day? A challenge to a duel?

Even harder to understand how this is a hopeless situation, in the darkness, he wrote such poems free sparkling full of intelligence and wit.

And even harder to understand how it is parallel with the chapters of “Onegin”! — wrote the greatest tragedy of the Russian theatre.

XXVIII. Puis Je créer*

* I can create. — FR.

Millions is neither here nor there saying “Ah Yes Pushkin, Ah Yes son of a bitch!”. Some remember that he cried about himself. And even very few know that this exclamation escaped him when he finished “Boris Godunov”. Here’s how it looks in its own obscene letter:

Pushkin — Vyazemsky.
7 Nov 1825. Michael.
The tragedy of my down and out; I reread it aloud, alone, and beat their hands and shouted: Ah Yes Pushkin, Ah Yes son of a bitch!

The letter hilarious, sometimes obscene (then it is strongly reduced); phrase jubilant. But it is a horrible word… One. He reads your masterpiece to yourself, because no one else. The author is unbearable. Mandelstam wrote: “the Reader! Conversation b!” — so dying from thirst cries: “Water!”

Where am I to go this January?
Open city extravagant tenacious…
From closed I’m not drunk doors? —
And I want to hum all locks and clips.

And in the pit, warty darkness
Glide to icy tower
And, stumbling, dead air eat
Fly rooks in the heat —

And I gasp after them, yelling
At some frozen wooden box:
Reader! counselor! doctor!
On the stairs barbed conversation b!

February, 1937
(100-anniversary of Pushkin’s death, coincidentally)

Reread aloud one… why? He’s not in solitary sitting. Around a lot of people — peasants, servants — the Russian people. But he can’t read. He’s not crazy. There is a wall.

And that Pushkin’s so admired in his own “Boris”? No doubt, the tragedy is a masterpiece. But not every sentence he gets in his hands. There’s one place that definitely caused a cry of delight and applause when the Author read the tragedy of friends in a small circle.

In addition to historical persons (Godunov, Kurbsky, Shuya, Pushkin, job, etc.), except for the servants, guards, bar wenches, etc., in tragedy, there is one absolutely unique character. Not power, not the clergy, not the people. Writer! If he’s a monk-chronicler — that is not important. It is important that he writes, risking their lives. “For sounds of life does not spare”. He is the witness! — describes how to order Godunov was murdered Tsarevich Dimitri. If about the manuscript (chronicle) became known, Pimen would have lived an hour, maybe a day…

PIMEN.
Oh terrible, unprecedented mountain!
Angered God we have sinned:
The Lord himself regicide
We called.

Pushkin jumps, shouts, strikes his hands. It’s in the link (1825); he realizes that this remark, of course guarantees the censorship ban. But accustomed “to the sounds of life do not spare”. He doesn’t know that Alexander I soon disappear. But knows that Alexander I — the Kingslayer (even if indirectly), in addition parricide. And then tragedy where there are such words, never miss it.

(However, Nicholas was not happy. Printing allowed only in 1831-M. A in theatre — no, not allowed. For the first time the stamp “allowed to view” appeared on tragedies only in 1866-m. Liberator, Alexander II freed the play five years after the abolition of serfdom! — Yes, and I suppose with difficulty.)

And all of a sudden — freedom! Pushkin was taken to the king. The king forgave, freed from censorship (“He’ll be your censor”). That’s happiness! that’s right! Finally he can read not one.

What action affected us all this reading — it is impossible to convey. We gathered to listen to Pushkin, brought up on the poetry of Lomonosov, Derzhavin, Kheraskov, Ozerova, which we all knew by heart. We need to recall the image reading poetry prevalent at the time. It was a chant, bequeathed to the French recitation. Instead of the lofty language of the gods, we heard simple, clear, ordinary, and meanwhile, poetic, fascinating speech!

Further, the sensations intensified. The scene of letopisets with Grigory shocked us all… And when Pushkin came to the story of Pimen’s visit to the Kirillov monastery Ivan the Terrible, and prayer of the monks “may God grant peace to his soul, suffering and violent”, we just all seemed to have oaspetele. Who felt the heat, one in a fever. The hair rose on end. Was not able to abstain. Who suddenly leap from space who cry out. Then silence, then a burst of exclamations, eg., when the verses of the impostor: “the Shadow of the terrible adopted me”. Ended reading. We looked at each other for a long time and then turned to Pushkin. Started arms, uproar, laughter, tears, congratulations. Don’t remember how we parted ways, how to finish the day as went to sleep. Yes, hardly anyone of us slept that night. So was shocked our whole body.

M. P. Pogodin. 1865

But the king’s freedom looks different than poetic, and just a human.

A. H. Benkendorf — Pushkin.
22 Nov 1826. Petersburg.
When my departure from Moscow I said to you in writing with the announcement of the Royal permission, that you, in the event of any new literary works your to the printing or distribution of these in the manuscripts, would be the pre-consideration thereof, or through my or even and straight, his Imperial Majesty.

Now come to me attention that you deigned to read in some societies, composed again by tragedy.

This makes me humbly ask you to notify me, whether or not such news or not. I’m sure however that you are too virtuous to not feel full so generous to you the Royal leniency and not seek to inflict themselves worthy thereof.

With perfect respect I have the honour to be your obedient servant, A. Benkendorf.

Translated into Russian language it is written threat: “What back wanted?” Then the Emperor finally got acquainted with the Comedy.

A. H. Benkendorf — Pushkin.
14 Dec 1826. Petersburg.
Sir, Alexander Sergeevich!
I had the good fortune to present to the Emperor your Comedy about Tsar Boris and Grishka Otrepiev. His Majesty deigned to read the judges with great pleasure and offered to me on this subject the note with his own hand wrote the following:
“I believe that the purpose of the town of Pushkin would be made, if necessary with cleansing remade Comedy in his historical novel or a novel like Walter Scott’s talk”.
Places to attract the attention of his Majesty’s requiring some purification noted in the manuscript.
I am very flattered and pleased to serve as an echo of the gracious attention of his Majesty to perfect your talents.

The king or mindless people — what’s the difference? Pushkin does not see it.

Additional, best, rights are dear to me;
Other, better, needs me freedom:
Depend on the king depend on people —
Do we care? God is with them. Anyone
Report do not give, only myself
To serve and please; for power, for livery
Do not bend no conscience, no thoughts, no neck…
That’s happiness! that’s right…

History has shown that Pushkin was wrong. Kings in the NINETEENTH century, followed by the tens and hundreds, and the “people” in the twentieth century went to the millions.

Ah, if only the king and the people did not understand. But not understood, and “your brother” — writers (some of them).

P. A. Catenin — buddy.
1 Feb 1831.
You require a thorough review of the Godunov: do not dare to disobey. In many details the mind no doubt, but the whole not embraced; I do not speak in a dramatic sense, it is not a drama, and a piece of history, broken into small pieces in conversations; and in this respect, too much missing. Had first Boris show in all its greatness; on the contrary, the first appearance of King dryly, and the second six years later dreary. The Patriarch tells the miracle of the new man of Uglich, and italic printed: Godunov several times wipes with a handkerchief: German stupid, we must see the troubles of the Emperor-prisoner from him, or from witnesses, not from the pantomime in brackets printed books. Instruction dying son long. Women scream when cut, is an abomination. The pretender has strong face; the recognition of the Marina in the garden nonsense. In short, all is not enough, a lot there.

Going back to Boris Godunov, I wish to ask what he should use white light? On theatre it does not suit the poem it can not be called neither a novel nor a history of the people, nothing. For which of the senses of man he has a price or dignity? Who will be hunting him to read when will be held the first curiosity?

Did not understand the famous tragedian, delights all, including Pushkin.

V. A. Karatygin — P. A. Catenin
March 5, 1831.
The recently released “Boris Godunov” by Pushkin. A family essay is to judge each. I think it’s nonsense in sekspirova kind.

Critics in 1831-m did not know that the Author had already answered them in 1825-M.

Pushkin — N. N. Rajewski-son
(in French)
July 1825. Mikhaylovskaya
I live in solitude: I have literally no other companies except old nanny and my tragedy; the latter is getting on, and I’m happy with this. Writing it, I began to reflect on the tragedy at all. This may be the least properly understood kind of poetry. And classics and romantics based their rule on credibility, and yet it was then, and is excluded by the very nature of a dramatic work. Not to mention the time and so on., what may be the credibility in the hall, divided into two halves, one of which holds two thousand people, though invisible to those on stage. Remember the ancients: their tragic mask, their dual role — all this is conditional improbability? The true geniuses of tragedy have never cared about credibility.

Read Shakespeare, he is never afraid to compromise his character, he makes him speak with complete ease, as in life, because I am sure that at the appropriate moment and under the right circumstances, he will find his language to match his character.

You ask me: and your tragedy — a tragedy of character or morals? I chose the easiest way, but tried to combine both. I write and meditate. I feel that my spiritual powers have reached full development, I can create. (Je sens que mon âme s’est tout-à-fait dévelopée, puis je créer. — FR.)

There, in 1825, in the link — “I can do” is not after four chapters of “Onegin”, and after “Boris”! “Create” is not the “compose”; he realized how high he rose. Same it will not be. Return to the pleasures of rampant, but the memory of the top, the feeling of his power will be with him forever.

In the bustle of cities and traffic
We return — simply nowhere to go!
And descend from the conquered peaks
Leaving the mountains, leaving the mountains my heart.

To be continued.
 

Mute Onegin. Part I.

Mute Onegin. Part II.

Mute Onegin. Part III.

Mute Onegin. Part IV.

Mute Onegin. Part V.

Mute Onegin. Part VI.

Mute Onegin. Part VII.

Mute Onegin. Part VIII.

Mute Onegin. Part IX.

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