After a fight with his fists do not wave. But we still decided to wave: painfully good story. About how beautiful the native state once again screwed us.
Sly was taken from us the sun is free and safe antibiotic, antidepressant and prevention of serious diseases. “MK” understood how it happened, why and what happens to us now.
photo: Alex geldings
To keep people healthy mentally and physically, in their apartment must look into the sun.
Direct sunlight needs to get into the room to ultraviolet irradiation improved the psychophysiological state of a person and kill pathogenic bacteria, viruses, germs.
There are Federal regulations of the Ministry of health Regulations. They establish, how many hours a day the premises should be illuminated by direct rays of the sun. Such coverage is called insolation, and the required number of hours is her norm.
The norms of insolation interfere with the business to build up multi-storey houses each meter of free land and sell the apartments, because this type of building apartments are darkened and norms SanPiN they can’t be provided.
Regulations limit the business in its pursuit of profit. Business in response is trying to change them and reduce the rate of insolation.
For the first time the rate of insolation in our country was established in 1963. For the Central geographic zone, located from the 48th to the 60th latitude, it was three hours a day. Was determined in the spring and autumn equinoxes — March 22 and September 22, and on June 22 was done in the control calculation.
Then the norm of insolation changed frequently reduced this way and that, and by 2002 was already 2 hours that were allowed in special cases to reduce for another 30 minutes, and that happened in the center of Moscow, for example.
However, the rate of insolation was business was too high. A couple of years ago, major developers began to punch a new reduce.
Found out about this intention, the group of concerned citizens — mostly related to architecture — wrote a collective letter to the Prime Minister Medvedev: the rate of insolation and so we have reduced to the point of impossibility, where else? “The refusal of the sun will inevitably affect the prevalence of psychogenic disorders and infectious diseases. We ask You, as the head of the Government of the Russian Federation, to prevent the reduction of the norms of insolation, to the detriment of the citizens of Russia”.
The answer came serene: don’t worry, the amendments to the Regulations is not planned, but if it comes to that, the first organized public discussion, where suggestions of stakeholders will be considered.
It was in the end of 2015. And 10 April 2017 was a surprise.
Chief sanitary doctor of Russia Anna Popova signed a Decree on amendments to SanPiN 2.2.1/18.104.22.1686-01 with the norms of insolation.
But this time the officials did not reduce hours, and changed the start date and the end of the regulatory period — the date on which the calculation of insolation.
If before, the calculation of standards was performed in the Central zone in days of an equinox on 22 March and 22 September, but now Anna Popova moved the date for April 22 and August 22.
No public discussion of such important innovations are “interested persons” is not noticed. Everything was done quietly.
The sanitary-and-epidemiological standardization of the departmental documents are accepted not by the Duma, and the CPS. In force of the Federal law №53 “On sanitary-epidemiological well-being” they have primacy over all other laws except the Constitution.
Chief sanitary doctor issued a ruling, it is registered in Ministry of justice and hi.
Photo: social networks
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What will be the changes to the regulation of exposure for the inhabitants of the new buildings — owners and those who are just planning to buy a home?
With this issue of “MK” asked one of the signatories of the “letter to Medvedev” — the Professor of chair of architectural physics, Moscow Institute of architecture, doctor-hygienist, architect Yuriy Popovsky.
“The closer the estimated date for the summer solstice, the sun at these dates above, — he explained. — That is a house under construction may be higher, and the sun will still pass over it.
Say, a new house under construction immediately to the South 50 meters in front of your window. When norms in March—September, he could be a height of 35 meters (without violating the norms of insolation), and the rules for April—August is 52 meters. At 17 m above, ie 5-6 floors.
If a new house is being built in the South-East, at the March rules, it could be a height of 20 m, and April — 40 m. twice.
In April—August, the sun rises 2 hours earlier than in March—September. This solves another problem of developers is to fill as much as possible of one-bedroom apartments and studios (they are the most popular on the market) on the floor.
At the March rules of the house in which both of the longitudinal facade only come out “odnushki”, could not stand next to other houses, because apartments intolerability due to morning and evening sun, and the sun during these hours is low. A neighboring house should be either low or stand as far. Now, when the calculations of insulation can account for an additional 2 hours in the morning and 2 hours in the evening, to accommodate such ant-hills is much easier. Previously, these apartments would have been zero regulatory exposure, and now — a whole two hours.
The average for the Central geographical area in people who have sun in the room fell in March for 2 hours, in April, got 4 hours, and in December (the most melancholy month) — well, let’s say, 20 minutes, according to the new rules will — in April 2 hours in March—September, someone same 2 hours (if facing South), and someone the sun is not at all (if the Windows on the West or East).
In December, if the Windows on the West or to the East, the sun does not fall. If to the South — nothing will change only in case if on the contrary nothing will be built. If something is constructed, then half of the apartments in December, the insolation is zero.
Briefly, approximately 50% of buyers of apartments in new buildings will not be in the winter sun, which human beings need most. And in every fifth apartment sun will be inaccessible from April to August, when the shortage of daylight in General no.”
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The order of development Regulations set forth in Federal law №52 “About sanitary-epidemiological well-being”, article 38, paragraph 2.
The law says that “elaboration of sanitary rules shall provide for:
— conducting comprehensive studies to identify and assess the impact of environmental factors on population health;
— definition of sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the prevention of impacts of the environment on human health, including the establishment of grounds, the presence of which requires the calculation and assessment of risk to human health;
— establish safety criteria and (or) harmlessness, hygienic and other norms of environmental factors;
— analysis of international experience in the field of sanitary-and-epidemiological normalization;
— the establishment of grounds for the revision of hygienic and other norms;
— forecasting social and economic consequences of sanitary regulations;
— justification of the terms and conditions of the introduction of sanitary rules into effect.”
As follows from the Federal law №52, all of the above should be done before to reduce the rate of insolation.
“To my knowledge, I would have studied the international experience, — said the “MK” Yuriy Popovsky. Nothing, as far as I know and other health doctors, do not. At least nowhere in any sources, not reflected”.
Information on international experience in 2016 published in the sixth issue of the magazine “Housing construction” — the article “Insolation — the practice of calculation and regulation”, the authors I. Shmarov, V. Zemtsov, E. Korkina.
In Germany, the rate of insolation of 4 hours per day from 21 March to 21 September. January 17 — test-day, the sun in this day is to highlight the direct rays of the premises not less than one hour. In Russia, by the way, for winter time no norms of insolation is generally not installed. Although in winter we experience extreme deficit of the sun, at this time the insolation is most needed.
In Sweden, the rate of insolation of 5 hours. In the Netherlands, in winter 2 hours summer — 3. In France and Italy — 2 hours. Belarus is 2 hours, Ukraine — 2.5 hours.
The estimated days of all — in the last week of March and September.
In April and August, no one. This means that such an idea could hardly be borrowed from the “analysis of international experience in the field of sanitary-epidemiological rationing”.
And here are some time it should be noted that in Russia the calculation of insolation is calculated only on days: April 22 (August), the living room should be illuminated to direct sunlight for two hours. Only in these two days. What is Sunny all the other days between these two dates — nobody cares.
And in Germany, Sweden and other countries the sun in the apartment should be every day from 22 March until 22 September (of course, if the weather is not cloudy). And as long as usual.
Judging from the data given in this article, the rate of insolation are lower than in other countries. From the international experience that is absolutely does not mean that it should be reduced.
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“Complex investigations on detection and assessment of the impact of environmental factors on the health of the population” — the most intriguing changes of sanitary-epidemiological norms listed in Federal law No. 52.
Comprehensive research no, because it is impossible to hold them.
People have lived for centuries with the sun. No one knows what will happen to people if them EN masse for many years to deprive of the sun lighting instead of some “fluorescent lighting”. One can only assume that the changes will be quite serious — up to genetic.
Probably worse overall health. Will be more specific “Northern” disease.
There are such disease that do not get sick in the South. In Africa, for example, there is almost no osteoporosis and multiple sclerosis.
Osteoporosis is associated with lack of vitamin D that is synthesized in the body under the action of ultraviolet rays. With osteoporosis understand why it’s not in Africa — there is a lot of sun. But is multiple sclerosis with insufficient insolation is still unknown. It may be linked. These assumptions are expressed.
Replacing natural light with artificial, we enter the realm of the unknown. But, discussing the Russian rules, never talk about it.
The need for insulation is associated only with the fact that ultraviolet radiation kills bacteria and viruses. “In a confined space the infection of human tuberculosis, flu, acute respiratory viral infections and many other diseases are airborne, says in the same article that was quoted above. — On sunlight culture of TB bacteria die after 1.5–2 hours culture of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria — 1.5 hours. Not resistant to solar radiation flu viruses. The dependence of the incidence of acute respiratory infections from building density”.
If you rely on these figures, insolation can be reduced up to 1.5 hours. After all this time is enough in spring and autumn (recall that the norms of insolation we now only April and August) to kill indoors influenza viruses and SARS. And to kill them even in summer and winter — so the question is not put, in our approach to the regulation of insolation is still unrealistic.
With regard to tuberculosis, the opponents of insolation claim that the incidence is reduced. Tuberculosis was a problem in Soviet times, and now it is mainly in prisons. But it’s not.
The incidence of TB is indeed falling, but still in Russia it is one of the highest in the world. The share of clients of the FPS represent only 12% of tuberculosis. Immigrants — another 2%. And almost 85% of patients — the usual indigenous Russians, the inhabitants of the Federation.
Against this background, the chief sanitary doctor of the country for two months reduces the period of the year, when not high requirements to insolation must be respected. But the medical community remains silent and does not resist.
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What consequences will result the reduction of the calculation period of exposure, taken in the spring of 2017?
This question we asked the experts.
Nikolay shepetkov, doctor of architecture, Professor, corresponding member of RANS, head. the chair of architectural physics, Moscow Institute of architecture: “it is Clear why this is done. So denser to build houses.
The compaction of the building will lead to the fact that not only the sun, but natural light will also be less than in the apartments. The day will have to turn on the light, although on the street it is fully free. However we will pay for light more than it is now.
Promise that the apartment without insolation will be cheaper. But housing in new buildings designed under the new regulations, it is now selling at the stage of excavation. And then it became cheaper.
So economically the people will lose. And his health is also affected. “The sun is our friend. It is short. Where there is no sun, it is often the doctor,” I say to students.
We now have in the Central geographical area of the norms of insolation is even lower than in the North. Unfortunately, doctors are silent. Become conformists. Or they don’t care, because personally they are not affected: they are in these apartments do not live.
The same architects. Willing to design homes with apartments, where the sun does not peep. And say to them: “You are designing for yourself — all my life going to live.” Immediately refuse.”
Igor Shmarov, doctor of technical Sciences, head. the laboratory of natural lighting research Institute of building physics: “I’m not happy that we also made changes that allow to compact development, primarily because of the machines. They are now nowhere to put in our yards, and it will be much worse.
However, the reduction of the calculation period — not a bad option. Because the developers wanted to completely eliminate the norms of insolation. To leave them only in the form of recommendations for developers.
The decision-makers, has voiced this idea. But this, I think, can’t do that. Today it is necessary to stop while it’s still in the bounds of decency. We have a building already denser than in Europe. If you eliminate the requirements of insolation, the developers will be left between the houses just fire roads. We will live like in the medieval cities: stretching the window arm to say Hello with a neighbor who lived across the street.”
Sergei nepomnyastchy, chief architect of the Institute of helioculture: “the City is ugly. Dark, muddy roads, occupy a huge territory, to cut down the forest around itself. It will grow extensively. In his uncomfortable and unhealthy. And of course I am sad about this with them.
The city should be based on other principles. Construction can be very compact and super dense, but in a lot of light, color and sun. Modern approaches to design and technology allow it”.
Yuriy Popovsky, doctor-hygienist, architect, chief specialist of analytical center “Insolation”: “Disaster will not happen. While the construction sector will manage everything that can be built under the new regulations, it will be decades. Yes, and after that will continue, gradually being reduced, part of the population, provided a physiological norm of insolation. So what we are waiting for the consequences? Well, a little more will get sick with the flu and SARS. Bit stronger will suffer from seasonal depression. A little more suicides. A little more disabled. A bit more have to spend money to pay for temporary disability. A little more of the cars in the yards. A little worse will learn. But in General — do not worry.”
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