How to live to a hundred years? This, of course, you know the Japanese where age-old age mark has already overcome more than 60 thousand people (in Russia there are only 7 thousand). In the framework of the year of Russia in Japan medical delegation came to our country to share the secrets of longevity. “MK” has learned these life hacks.
Recently our country signed eight-year cooperation plan, in which the first item is the increase in life expectancy and improvement of the inhabitants of Russia and Japan. The Japanese, in this sense, of course, can give us a healthy example.
If everything in the world is just over 7% of elderly over 65, in Japan 27% of these, and by 2025 will be more than 38% (for comparison: in Russia the elderly — 14%). Average life expectancy for men is 80 years and women 86 years. But the main thing — Japan is the absolute champion in the number of active and healthy centenarians.
However, the Japanese have faced a number of problems, chief of which is the menacing senile dementia (dementia), where there has been suffering for 15-20% of the elderly. As the Director of the center for learning and innovation the National centre for geriatrics and gerontology Japan Hidetoshi Endo, in his country many vigorous old people over 65 years who are happy to work, so in Japan are already thinking about how to raise the bar to determine the status of “elderly” to 75 years. And yet those who have lived to see his dementia requires constant care. Every 5 years the number of people with dementia doubles. “With the 60-ies of the last century, we are getting older. Long-term care today takes 14% of the elderly and such can take the advantage of the state — they go home, doctors, nurses; there are special rehabilitation centres. So the relatives from the performance of such duties are exempt,” says Mr. Hidetoshi Endo.
So, how to live to a hundred years? “First of all, it is necessary that the country was rich and prosperous,” the joke is Director of the Center for learning and innovation the National centre of gerontology and geriatrics Japan Kenji Toba is the truth. In addition, he noted a great role of proper nutrition. “Before, we ate a lot of salt in the Northern regions — 30-40 grams per day. Salt proven to affect the development of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and disasters. We have adopted a state program to reduce salt intake. We have now reached a level of less than 10 grams a day, and statistics cardiovascular disease has markedly improved. In Russia, the delicious food, but you sin because all overdo. A Japanese diet is very healthy: we eat little fat, lots of fish. You need to eat more fresh vegetables, fruits, fish, dairy products; less beef, it can be replaced with chicken. All this is banal things, but they are of great importance,” says Kenji Toba.
Head of Department of policy of Management on the food industry of the Ministry of agriculture of Japan, Takashi Shishido says that nutrition of the elderly in the country are paying a lot of attention. In every Japanese supermarket, you can find the departments of nutrition for those who are “for” – by analogy with the departments of nutrition for children. Here, for example, you can find special enriched with vitamins and minerals mixture for those, who eats little, and thus gets the insufficient quantity of necessary substances. Special additives to soften the food to facilitate its ingestion people with eating disorders (with years of chewing and swallowing harder). In Japan, similar products of more than 800 registered names, and for all ages.
With regard to prevention of dementia, the elderly know that this purpose, you need to read a lot, learn foreign languages, and most importantly — chat. Good education and social relevance here called the key to a clear mind in old age. By the way, according to who, Russia is in sixth place in the world on the prevalence of dementia. This is largely due to late diagnosis of the disease: the patients themselves, and their loved ones, and even doctors take the symptoms for age violations and refer patients to specialized professionals, which may slow the progression of the disease.
As noted by chief geriatrician of the Russian Federation Olga Tkacheva, the Russian system of geriatric care is created just now. “Longevity is genetics is only 25%; the rest depends on the person’s lifestyle. Slow down aging it is in our power. So now we have clinics appear geriatric doctors whose job it is to help people to prevent diseases of old age. Incidentally, this doctor is allowed to spend on each patient hour — during this time, you have a good understanding of what was happening to him and to give valuable recommendations,” says Olga Tkacheva.
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